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Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder reported in association with dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are conceptualized as lying within the spectrum of addictions, little neurobiological evidence exists to support this belief. Functional imaging studies have consistently demonstrated(More)
Early post-mortem data suggest that damage to brain serotonin neurones might play a role in some features (e.g., depression) of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not known whether such damage is a typical characteristic of living patients with PD or whether the changes are regionally widespread. To address this question we measured, by positron(More)
CONTEXT Highly significant elevations in regional brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding were recently reported during major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive disorder (MDD). The relationship between MAO-A levels and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, recovery, and recurrence in MDD is unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a(More)
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. In this regard, the DLPFC has been targeted in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies as a form of treatment to those patients who are resistant to medications. The(More)
The kinetic modeling of [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding to the dopamine D2/3 receptors in six human volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) is described. [11C]-(+)-PHNO is the first agonist radioligand for the D2/3 in humans and as expected showed high uptake in caudate, putamen, globus pallidus (GP) and ventral striatum, and low uptake in cerebellum. A(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) findings suggesting lower D2-type dopamine receptors and dopamine concentration in brains of stimulant users have prompted speculation that increasing dopamine signaling might help in drug treatment. However, this strategy needs to consider the possibility, based on animal and postmortem human data, that dopaminergic(More)
Imaging the competition between D(2/3) radioligands and endogenous dopamine is so far the only way to measure dopamine release in the living human brain. The dopamine D(2) receptor exists in a high (D(2)(high)) and a low-affinity state for dopamine. Under physiological conditions, dopamine is expected to bind to D(2)(high) only.(More)
Neuronal oscillations in the gamma (gamma) frequency range (30-50 Hz) have been associated with cognition. Working memory (WM), a cognitive task involving the on-line maintenance and manipulation of information, elicits increases in gamma oscillations with greater cognitive demand, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The generation(More)
There is clear evidence that the prefrontal cortex is strongly involved in executive processes and that dopamine can influence performance on working memory tasks. Although, some studies have emphasized the role of striatal dopamine in executive functions, the role played by prefrontal dopamine during executive tasks is unknown. In order to investigate(More)