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CONTEXT Highly significant elevations in regional brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) binding were recently reported during major depressive episodes (MDEs) of major depressive disorder (MDD). The relationship between MAO-A levels and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, recovery, and recurrence in MDD is unknown. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
The ability to dynamically use various aspects of cognition is essential to daily function, and reliant on dopaminergic transmission in cortico-striatal circuitry. Our aim was to investigate both striatal and cortical dopaminergic changes in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment, who represent a vulnerable group for the(More)
OBJECTIVE Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with tics and a constellation of nonmotor symptoms that includes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Accumulated evidence from pharmacological trials and postmortem analyses suggests that abnormalities of(More)
Manual drawing of regions of interest (ROIs) on brain positron emission tomography (PET) images is labour intensive and subject to intra- and inter-individual variations. To standardize analysis and improve the reproducibility of PET measures, we have developed image analysis software for automated quantification of PET data. The method is based on the(More)
OBJECTIVES Antipsychotic medications improve psychosis but often induce a state of dysphoria in patients. Blockade of the dopamine D(2) receptors, which is thought to mediate their efficacy, has also been implicated in producing this adverse subjective experience. The authors present the first double-blind controlled study to examine the relationship(More)
Generally, rewards that are received sooner are often preferred over future rewards, and the time between the choice and the reception of the reward is an important factor that influences our decisions, a phenomenon called delay discounting (DD). In DD, the medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) and striatal dopamine neurotransmission both play an important role.(More)
Imaging the competition between D(2/3) radioligands and endogenous dopamine is so far the only way to measure dopamine release in the living human brain. The dopamine D(2) receptor exists in a high (D(2)(high)) and a low-affinity state for dopamine. Under physiological conditions, dopamine is expected to bind to D(2)(high) only.(More)
The kinetic modeling of [11C]-(+)-PHNO binding to the dopamine D2/3 receptors in six human volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) is described. [11C]-(+)-PHNO is the first agonist radioligand for the D2/3 in humans and as expected showed high uptake in caudate, putamen, globus pallidus (GP) and ventral striatum, and low uptake in cerebellum. A(More)
The D(2) receptors exist in either the high- or low-affinity state with respect to agonists, and while agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state, antagonists do not distinguish between the two states. [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO is a PET D(2) agonist radioligand and therefore provides a preferential measure of the D(2) (high) receptors. In contrast,(More)
The main pattern of cognitive impairments seen in early to moderate stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes deficits of executive functions. These nonmotor complications have a significant impact on the quality of life and day-to-day activities of PD patients and are not effectively managed by current therapies, a problem which is almost certainly due(More)