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Milled wood lignin (MWL) and acetic and formic acid lignin (AL and FL) from Miscanthus x giganteus bark were produced, respectively, before and after organosolv fractionations under optimal conditions, in terms of organic and hydrochloric acid concentrations, liquid/wood ratio, and reaction time. In order to study the M. x giganteus native lignin structure(More)
This paper deals with the chemical treatments with selected organic compounds that have been applied to Miscanthus to upgrade it, for pulp production or fractionation purposes. Organosolv processes have demonstrated their effectiveness as fractionation treatments; therefore special emphasis is placed on these systems and, in particular, those making use of(More)
Miscanthus x giganteus stalks were subjected to delignification with formic acid-hydrogen peroxide-water in two stages. A face-centered experimental design was used to study the effects of different variables (formic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, time and temperature) on yield, lignin content and viscosity of pulps on the first stage. Fitting(More)
In this work, depithed cardoon stalk (Cynara cardunculus) has been used with the objective of obtaining bleachable pulps. The material, once properly prepared, was subjected to one-step peroxyformic acid delignification. In order to study the process, a face-centred second order factorial design was developed which allowed the determination of the(More)
Milox pulping of EFB was used to obtain pulps. In the first Milox stage, the influences of operating variables on pulp properties were studied and polynomial and neural fuzzy models that reproduced the experimental results with errors less than 10% were developed. Operating variables were found (93 wt.% of formic acid, 3 wt.% of hydrogen peroxide, and 165(More)
This work presents the results obtained from a study on the pretreatment of urban wastewater using a digester that acted as a system for the retention of solids (sedimentation-filtration), hydrolysis of the retained solids and acidification of the dissolved substances. After start-up (Phase I), the digester was operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of(More)
The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of bark and core, of the Miscanthus x giganteus stalk, was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Aromatic compounds, sterols, and fatty acids, followed by long-chain fatty alcohols, were the major families of components present in the M. x giganteus stalk. Aromatic compounds are more(More)
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil were characterized. The holocellulose (66.97%), α-cellulose (47.91%), and lignin (24.45%) are similar to wood materials, and various non-wood materials, but the fiber length is shorter (0.53 mm). The influence of operational variables in the EFB pulping [formic acid (75-95%), hydrochloric acid (0.05-0.15%), and time(More)
The aim of this study was to examine sludge granulation during the anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysed municipal wastewater. The pretreated wastewater had a total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) of 432 ± 20 mg/l, a soluble COD (CODs) of 259 ± 8 mg/l, volatile fatty acids (VFA) of 101 ± 9 mg/l and suspended solids (SS) of 94 ± 12 mg/l. Prior to entering the(More)