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Innate immunity is a widespread and important defence against microbial attack, which in insects is thought to originate mainly in the fat body. Here we demonstrate that the fluid-transporting Malpighian (renal) tubule of Drosophila melanogaster constitutes an autonomous immune-sensing tissue utilising the nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathway. Reverse(More)
Dh, the gene that encodes a CRF-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, is described. The product of this gene is a 44-amino-acid peptide (Drome-DH(44)) with a sequence almost identical to the Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans diuretic hormones. There are no other similar peptides encoded within the known Drosophila genomic sequence. Functional(More)
To regulate their internal environments, organisms must adapt to varying ion levels in their diet. Adult Drosophila were exposed to dietary salt stress, and their physiological, survival, and gene expression responses monitored. Insects continued to feed on NaCl-elevated diet, although levels >4% wt/vol ultimately proved fatal. Affymetrix microarray(More)
In D. melanogaster Malpighian (renal) tubules, the capa peptides stimulate production of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in increased fluid transport. The roles of NO synthase (NOS), NO and cGMP in capa peptide signalling were tested in several other insect species of medical relevance within the Diptera (Aedes(More)
Guanosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) are important regulators of cell and tissue function. However, cGMP and cAMP transport have received relatively limited attention, especially in model organisms where such studies can be conducted in vivo. The Drosophila Malpighian (renal) tubule transports cGMP and(More)
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for(More)
Epithelia frequently segregate transport processes to specific cell types, presumably for improved efficiency and control. The molecular players underlying this functional specialization are of particular interest. In Drosophila, the renal (Malpighian) tubule displays the highest per-cell transport rates known and has two main secretory cell types,(More)
Mitochondria accumulate at sites of intense metabolic activity within cells, but the adaptive value of this placement is not clear. In Drosophila, sesB encodes the ubiquitous isoform of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT, the mitochondrial inner membrane ATP/ADP exchanger); null alleles are lethal, whereas hypomorphic alleles display sensitivity to a range(More)
The success of insects is in large part due to their ability to survive environmental stress, including heat, cold, and dehydration. Insects are also exposed to infection, osmotic or oxidative stress, and to xenobiotics or toxins. The molecular mechanisms of stress sensing and response have been widely investigated in mammalian cell lines, and the area of(More)
Identification of the Anopheles gambiae leucokinin gene from the completed A. gambiae genome revealed that this insect species contains three leucokinin peptides, named Anopheles leucokinin I-III. These peptides are similar to those identified in two other mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Culex salinarius. Additionally, Anopheles leucokinin I displays(More)