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B-cell activation factor from the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation -- a delicate immune checkpoint for B cells. Excessive BAFF production at this stage corrupts B-cell tolerance and leads to autoimmunity. Elevated serum BAFF levels have been detected in some patients suffering from various autoimmune(More)
This study describes a CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subset marked by coexpression of the cytokine interleukin 21 (IL-21) and the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9. Although CCR9+ Th cells were observed in healthy mice and humans, they were enriched in the inflamed pancreas and salivary glands of NOD mice and in the circulation of Sjögren's syndrome patients.(More)
While sharing the H2g7 MHC and many other important Type I diabetes susceptibility (Idd) genes with NOD mice, the NOR strain remains disease free due to resistance alleles within the ∼12% portion of their genome that is of C57BLKS/J origin. Previous F2 segregation analyses indicated multiple genes within the ‘Idd13’ locus on Chromosome 2 provide the primary(More)
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D(More)
Reduced numbers and function of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells partially contribute to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in NOD mice. Previous linkage analysis identified a genetic locus on chromosome 2 controlling numbers of thymic iNKT cells. Interestingly, this locus resides within the Idd13 region that distinguishes NOD mice from the closely genetically(More)
We have previously shown that nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are selectively deficient in alpha/beta-T cell receptor (TCR)+CD4-CD8- NKT cells, a defect that may contribute to their susceptibility to the spontaneous development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The role of NKT cells in protection from IDDM in NOD mice was studied by the infusion(More)
HLDA10 is the Tenth Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen (HLDA) Workshop. The HLDA Workshops provide a mechanism to allocate cluster of differentiation (CD) nomenclature by engaging in interlaboratory studies. As the host laboratory, we invited researchers from national and international academic and commercial institutions to submit monoclonal(More)
Advances in our knowledge of the spectrum of B-cell activities combined with the remarkable clinical efficacy of B-cell inhibitors in autoimmunity and transplantation settings serve to re-emphasise the importance of tolerance to self and foreign antigens in the B-cell repertoire. In particular, new information is emerging about the molecular mechanisms(More)
Although much is known about the pathology of human chronic atrophic (type A, autoimmune) gastritis, its cause is poorly understood. Mouse experimental autoimmune gastritis (EAG) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disease of the stomach that is induced by neonatal thymectomy of BALB/c mice. It has many features similar to human autoimmune(More)