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Combinations of antiretroviral drugs that prevent or delay the appearance of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) mutants are urgently required. Mutants resistant to 3'-azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine) became phenotypically sensitive in vitro by mutation of residue 184 of viral reverse transcriptase to valine, which also induced(More)
We examined the prevalence of cleavage site mutations, both within and outside the gag region, in 28 protease inhibitor (PI) cross-resistant patients treated with indinavir, ritonavir, and/or saquinavir compared to control patients treated with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Three human immunodeficiency virus protease cleavage sites within gag (p2/NC,(More)
OBJECTIVES The EuResist expert system is a novel data-driven online system for computing the probability of 8-week success for any given pair of HIV-1 genotype and combination antiretroviral therapy regimen plus optional patient information. The objective of this study was to compare the EuResist system vs. human experts (EVE) for the ability to predict(More)
OBJECTIVES To characterize the antiviral response and tolerability of a multi-drug rescue therapy (MDRT) among heavily pretreated patients. METHODS Observational study conducted in a single, university-based tertiary referral clinic. Patients (n = 106) who failed several prior regimens started MDRT including at least five antiretroviral (ARV) drugs(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined the frequency of transmission of drug resistant HIV in the population of injecting drug users (IDU) in Vancouver, Canada during a period of particularly high virus transmission. DESIGN All subjects enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who seroconverted from HIV negative to positive status (n = 61) between(More)
OBJECTIVE Natural genetic polymorphisms within the CCR5 gene and promoter have been linked to patterns of HIV-1 clinical disease progression in untreated individuals. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of the CCR5Delta32 mutation and promoter polymorphisms on virological and immunological treatment outcome in 436(More)
The temporal relationship between viral and surrogate markers and clinical status was analyzed prospectively every 8 weeks in 34 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected persons. After 3 years, 25 persons remained clinically healthy whereas 9 persons showed clinical progression. In accordance with other reports we found that at study entry HIV-RNA load was predictive of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of plasma HIV-1 RNA rebound in patients stopping highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after achieving undetectable viral load. DESIGN Sequential plasma HIV RNA levels were measured in six patients during the 21 days following withdrawal from HAART. METHODS Plasma samples were obtained from six patients who chose(More)
The safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of lamivudine alone and in combination with zidovudine was studied in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and their neonates. Women received the drugs orally from week 38 of pregnancy to 1 week after delivery. Neonate therapy began 12 h after delivery and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of baseline HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease sequence variation on virologic outcomes in a large cohort of antiretroviral-naive patients in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS Population sequencing of RT and protease was performed on baseline viral RNA of all antiretroviral-naive patients first seeking treatment in(More)