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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is traditionally used for alcoholic beverage and bioethanol production; however, its performance during fermentation is compromised by the impact of ethanol accumulation on cell vitality. This article reviews studies into the molecular basis of the ethanol stress response and ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae; such knowledge can(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion (F) glycoprotein of the Beaudette C strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been determined from cDNA clones obtained from virion RNA. The gene is 1792 nucleotides long, including mRNA start and polyadenylation signals typical of paramyxoviruses. The single open reading frame encodes a polypeptide(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the L gene of the Beaudette C strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been determined. The L gene is 6704 nucleotides long and encodes a protein of 2204 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 248822. Mung bean nuclease mapping of the 5' terminus of the L gene mRNA indicates that the transcription of the L gene is(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been determined. The HN gene is 2031 nucleotides long, approximately 13.5% of the viral genome. The nucleotide sequence contains a single long open reading frame which would encode a protein of 577 amino acids, with a mol. wt. of 63,149. This is in(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the matrix (M) protein of the Beaudette C strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been determined from overlapping cDNA clones. Control sequences typical of paramyxovirus mRNA start and polyadenylation signals have been identified. Assuming that the M gene starts and finishes at these sequences, the M gene is(More)
The binding site of a monoclonal antibody to the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) polypeptide of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been located. Complementary DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to portions of the HN gene were cloned into the Escherichia coli vector pUC19 and fragments of the HN protein were thereby fused to the alpha-peptide(More)
Complementary DNA clones to 90% of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genome have been produced and mapped. These clones cover the entire HN, F and M genes, most if not all of the L gene and parts of the NP and P genes. The map of overlapping clones gives the gene order 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5' for NDV, identical to the gene order of Sendai virus, on the(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the fusion (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein genes of the extremely avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Ulster have been determined by sequencing cDNA clones derived from viral genomic RNA. Open reading frames, assumed to encode the F0 and HN0 glycoprotein precursors, were 553 and 616 amino acids(More)
In this paper we report on the identification of non-essential genes in the terminal repeats of the avipox-virus fowlpox virus and the use of these as insertion sites in a vector system. Foreign genes inserted into these sites are shown to be present in two copies in the resultant recombinant virus. To test the potential use of this vector as a live vaccine(More)
Analogs of human interferon-alpha 1 (IFN-alpha 1) were created in vitro by site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the structural requirements at amino acid position 123 for binding to the IFN receptor, antiviral activity, and antiproliferative activity. The tyrosine residue 123, which is conserved in all known mammalian IFNs-alpha and -beta, was replaced(More)