Learn More
We have studied the three-dimensional arrangement of ventricular muscle cells and the associated extracellular connective tissue matrix in dog hearts. Four hearts were potassium-arrested, excised, and perfusion-fixed at zero transmural pressure. Full-thickness segments were cut from the right and left ventricular walls at a series of precisely located(More)
A model of passive and active cardiac muscle mechanics is presented, suitable for use in continuum mechanics models of the whole heart. The model is based on an extensive review of experimental data from a variety of preparations (intact trabeculae, skinned fibres and myofibrils) and species (mainly rat and ferret) at temperatures from 20 to 27 degrees C.(More)
The determinants of relaxation in cardiac muscle are poorly understood, yet compromised relaxation accompanies various pathologies and impaired pump function. In this study, we develop a model of active contraction to elucidate the relative importance of the [Ca2+]i transient magnitude, the unbinding of Ca2+ from troponin C (TnC), and the length-dependence(More)
Clinical and research data indicate that active and passive changes in the mechanical environment of the heart are capable of influencing both the initiation and the spread of cardiac excitation via pathways that are intrinsic to the heart. This direction of the cross-talk between cardiac electrical and mechanical activity is referred to as mechano-electric(More)
A mathematical description of cardiac anatomy is presented for use with finite element models of the electrical activation and mechanical function of the heart. The geometry of the heart is given in terms of prolate spheroidal coordinates defined at the nodes of a finite element mesh and interpolated within elements by a combination of linear Lagrange and(More)
Anatomically based finite element geometries are becoming increasingly popular in physiological modelling, owing to the demand for modelling that links organ function to spatially distributed properties at the protein, cell and tissue level. We present a collection of anatomically based finite element geometries of the musculo-skeletal system and other(More)
A new in vitro model has been developed for investigating extravascular diffusion of therapeutic agents in tumour tissue. V79-171b or EMT6/Ak cells are grown on porous Teflon support membranes and submerged in a large reservoir of medium, to give diffusion-limited 'multicellular membranes' (MMs) c. 200 microm in thickness. MMs are histologically similar to(More)
1. Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) in the heart is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can change its electrical properties. Mechanoelectric feedback has been demonstrated in many animal models, ranging from isolated cells, through isolated hearts to whole animals. In humans, MEF has been demonstrated directly in both the atria and the(More)
The gcm gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a transcription factor that is an important component in cell fate specification within the nervous system. In the absence of a functional gcm gene, progenitor cells differentiate into neurons, whereas when the gene is ectopically expressed the cells produce excess glial cells at the expense of neuronal(More)
A 3D anatomically based patient-specific finite element (FE) model of patello-femoral (PF) articulation is presented to analyse the main features of patella biomechanics, namely, patella tracking (kinematics), quadriceps extensor forces, surface contact and internal patella stresses. The generic geometries are a subset from the model database of the(More)