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The determinants of relaxation in cardiac muscle are poorly understood, yet compromised relaxation accompanies various pathologies and impaired pump function. In this study, we develop a model of active contraction to elucidate the relative importance of the [Ca2+]i transient magnitude, the unbinding of Ca2+ from troponin C (TnC), and the length-dependence(More)
A model of passive and active cardiac muscle mechanics is presented, suitable for use in continuum mechanics models of the whole heart. The model is based on an extensive review of experimental data from a variety of preparations (intact trabeculae, skinned fibres and myofibrils) and species (mainly rat and ferret) at temperatures from 20 to 27 degrees C.(More)
We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also(More)
Clinical and research data indicate that active and passive changes in the mechanical environment of the heart are capable of influencing both the initiation and the spread of cardiac excitation via pathways that are intrinsic to the heart. This direction of the cross-talk between cardiac electrical and mechanical activity is referred to as mechano-electric(More)
The gcm gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a transcription factor that is an important component in cell fate specification within the nervous system. In the absence of a functional gcm gene, progenitor cells differentiate into neurons, whereas when the gene is ectopically expressed the cells produce excess glial cells at the expense of neuronal(More)
Anatomically based finite element geometries are becoming increasingly popular in physiological modelling, owing to the demand for modelling that links organ function to spatially distributed properties at the protein, cell and tissue level. We present a collection of anatomically based finite element geometries of the musculo-skeletal system and other(More)
1. Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF) in the heart is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can change its electrical properties. Mechanoelectric feedback has been demonstrated in many animal models, ranging from isolated cells, through isolated hearts to whole animals. In humans, MEF has been demonstrated directly in both the atria and the(More)
We have studied the three-dimensional arrangement of ventricular muscle cells and the associated extracellular connective tissue matrix in dog hearts. Four hearts were potassium-arrested, excised, and perfusion-fixed at zero transmural pressure. Full-thickness segments were cut from the right and left ventricular walls at a series of precisely located(More)