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The cumulative sum procedure introduced by Hurst (1950) involves subtraction of a control reference level from a series of datum points and adding the differences consecutively. The resultant curve shows trends indicating changed levels of points. The technique has been applied to peristimulus time histograms in order to reveal small changes in the(More)
1. Suppression of voluntary muscle activity of hand and arm muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has been investigated in man. 2. Suppression could be elicited by low levels of TMS without any prior excitatory response. The latency of the suppression was 3-8 ms longer than the excitation observed at a higher(More)
The size of compound motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was measured in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nondominant hand (ndFDI) during different levels of voluntary contraction in the homonymous muscle of the dominant hand (dFDI). cMEP responses in the ndFDI became larger when the(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis (ICCP) supported an international panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the first of four papers. Here, we examine the spontaneous rate of recovery after SCI and(More)
We have investigated variability in the amplitude of compound motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) in right and left thenar and wrist extensor muscles in response to synchronous bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortices using two figure-of-eight stimulating coils. Trials of 50 stimuli revealed a wide range of variability in cMEP(More)
Short-term synchrony between the discharges of motor units has been assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal man. The discharges of single motor units were recorded in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle of the forearm or the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of the leg during weak, voluntary isometric contraction. Short-term synchrony was(More)
Cross-correlation analysis of the naturally occurring discharges of gamma-motoneurones to gastrocnemius and soleus muscles has revealed a tendency towards synchronized firing in the decerebrated, spinal cat. The primary feature of the cross-correlation between two gamma-motoneurones is a symmetrical peak centred at time zero with reference to discharges at(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
An international panel reviewed the methodology for clinical trials of spinal cord injury (SCI), and provided recommendations for the valid conduct of future trials. This is the second of four papers. It examines clinical trial end points that have been used previously, reviews alternative outcome tools and identifies unmet needs for demonstrating the(More)
We have assessed corticospinal function in 19 post-coma patients severely brain-injured by anoxia or physical trauma. Eleven patients were unresponsive (Category 1) and eight demonstrated minimal, non-verbal responses to simple commands (Category 2). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) could be elicited in hand and leg muscles in nine Category 1 and all eight(More)