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The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis (ICCP) supported an international panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the first of four papers. Here, we examine the spontaneous rate of recovery after SCI and(More)
1. Suppression of voluntary muscle activity of hand and arm muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has been investigated in man. 2. Suppression could be elicited by low levels of TMS without any prior excitatory response. The latency of the suppression was 3-8 ms longer than the excitation observed at a higher(More)
The cumulative sum procedure introduced by Hurst (1950) involves subtraction of a control reference level from a series of datum points and adding the differences consecutively. The resultant curve shows trends indicating changed levels of points. The technique has been applied to peristimulus time histograms in order to reveal small changes in the(More)
The size of compound motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was measured in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nondominant hand (ndFDI) during different levels of voluntary contraction in the homonymous muscle of the dominant hand (dFDI). cMEP responses in the ndFDI became larger when the(More)
An international panel reviewed the methodology for clinical trials of spinal cord injury (SCI), and provided recommendations for the valid conduct of future trials. This is the second of four papers. It examines clinical trial end points that have been used previously, reviews alternative outcome tools and identifies unmet needs for demonstrating the(More)
BACKGROUND In this first investigation of motor function in schizophrenia using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the general hypothesis tested was that this methodology could be used to investigate the disruption of corticospinal inhibitory processes suggested by cognitive and psychophysiological paradigms. METHOD Nine drug-free DSM-IV(More)
The peristimulus time histogram (psth) provides a means of correlating the discharges of neurones with other events. The cumulative sum (cusum) derived from the psth facilitates the detection of small changes in the psth that may be obscured by random fluctuations in counts. The cusum integrates differences from the mean control level of counts in the psth.(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
Frequency of firing and regularity of discharge of human motor units, and short term synchrony between pairs of motor units, have been assessed in extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in control subjects and in clinically complete paraplegic subjects. The discharge pattern of TA motor units in paraplegia ranged from extremely(More)