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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DM is an unconventional major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II heterodimer that is important for B-cell-mediated antigen processing and presentation to MHC class II-restricted T cells. HLA-DM is encoded by two genes, DMA and DMB, which map to the MHC class II region, and shares some homology with MHC class I and class(More)
Following antigenic challenge, MHC-restricted T cell responses are directed against a few dominant antigenic epitopes. Here, evidence is provided demonstrating the importance of APC in modulating the hierarchy of MHC class II-restricted T cell responses. Biochemical analysis of class II:peptide complexes in B cells revealed the presentation of a hierarchy(More)
The pI-6.8 species of normal human interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been isolated by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The isolated material had a molecular weight of 18,000, and had a specific bioactivity of 1.7 X 10(7) half-maximal U/mg in the murine thymocyte proliferation assay, values similar to those obtained for murine(More)
Two anionic species of human IL-1 have been purified to homogeneity. These molecules were characterized as having pI of 5.4 and 5.2 and molecular weights identical to IL-1/6.8 (17,500). The specific activities of IL-1/5.4 and IL-1/5.2, as measured in the mouse thymocyte co-mitogenic assay, were identical to that of IL-1/6.8, namely 1.2 X 10(7) U/mg, with(More)
While IL-1 was initially described as a lymphocyte-activating factor (1), subsequent studies (2, 3) have shown that IL-1 regulates a variety of nonlymphoid cells involved in the inflammatory response. Prominent among these are connective tissue cells. While early studies demonstrated the ability of IL-I to stimulate proliferation by human dermal fibroblasts(More)
The authors describe a systematic approach to the process of formulation. Four interlocking phases are considered. The longitudinal data collection evaluate the patient's developmental journey. The cross-sectional evaluation includes careful consideration of phenomenological and dynamic factors. The integrative evaluation of these factors permits the(More)
The purpose of this paper was to identify examples of supervisory and treatment impasses that occur in psychotherapy training and to examine aspects of their resolution. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by resident volunteers in two Ontario university departments of psychiatry. Despite responses indicating an apparent overall contentment with(More)
OBJECTIVE To propose a model for teaching and supervising the termination process in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. METHOD Group supervision of the 12-week termination phase of psychotherapy with a patient who had been in psychotherapy with a senior resident for 2 years. RESULTS This supervisory method provided a positive termination experience for the(More)
The authors present a method of reporting and evaluating a formulation. The reporting of a formulation includes a summary introduction, biological considerations, psychosocial considerations and hypothesis construction. Three sample formulations are scrutinized and specific critical evaluations offered. The subsequent reformulations are presented.