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The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): a method of assessing executive function in children
- P. Zelazo
- PsychologyNature Protocols
Performance on the DCCS provides an index of the development of executive function, and it is impaired in children with disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism.
An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them ☆
Executive Function in Typical and Atypical Development
Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox
The NIH-TB Cognition Battery is intended to serve as a brief, convenient set of measures to supplement other outcome measures in epidemiologic and longitudinal research and clinical trials and will provide a “common currency” among researchers for comparisons across a wide range of studies and populations.
Theory of mind and rule-based reasoning
Hot and Cool Executive Function in Childhood and Adolescence: Development and Plasticity
Executive function (EF), which refers to the more deliberate, top-down neurocognitive processes involved in self-regulation, develops most rapidly during the preschool years, together with the growth…
Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors.
Children who are at highest risk of not learning to regulate physical aggression in early childhood have mothers with a history of antisocial behaviour during their school years, mothers who start childbearing early and who smoke during pregnancy, and parents who have low income and have serious problems living together.
Assessment of Hot and Cool Executive Function in Young Children: Age-Related Changes and Individual Differences
- Donaya Hongwanishkul, Keith Happaney, Wendy S. C. Lee, P. Zelazo
- PsychologyDevelopmental neuropsychology
- 1 October 2005
Findings confirmed that performance on both types of task develops during the preschool period, but the measures of hot and cool EF showed different patterns of relations with each other and with measures of general intellectual function and temperament.
The development of executive function in early childhood.
- P. Zelazo, Ulrich Müller,, Alexandra Sutherland
- PsychologyMonographs of the Society for Research in Child…
- 16 January 1991
The results of these studies provide the basis for a revision of the CCC theory that specifies more clearly the circumstances in which children will have difficulty using rules at various levels of complexity, provides a more detailed account of how to determine the complexity of rules required in a task, takes account of both the activation and inhibition of rules as a function of experience, and highlights the importance of taking intentionality seriously in the study of executive function.