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A new paradigm for ammonia excretion in aquatic animals: role of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins
SUMMARY Ammonia excretion at the gills of fish has been studied for 80 years, but the mechanism(s) involved remain controversial. The relatively recent discovery of the ammonia-transporting functionExpand
Ammonia excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): evidence for Rh glycoprotein and H+-ATPase involvement.
Branchial ammonia transport in freshwater teleosts is not well understood. Most studies conclude that NH(3) diffuses out of the gill and becomes protonated to NH(4)(+) in an acidified gill boundaryExpand
Nitrogen excretion: three end products, many physiological roles.
  • P. Wright
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1 February 1995
There are diverse physiological functions of nitrogen end products in different animal groups, including excretion, acid-base regulation, osmoregulation and buoyancy. Animals excrete a variety ofExpand
Expression and Activity of Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase III and Ornithine Urea Cycle Enzymes in Various Tissues of Four Fish Species
Abstract Previous studies have reported low activities of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and other ornithine urea cycle enzymes in the liver of many teleost fishes, but it was notExpand
Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment
Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates. It can be converted to the less toxic urea, but this is a metabolically expensive process1 found only in terrestrial vertebrates that cannot readily excreteExpand
An Analysis of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Freshwater Rainbow Trout: Effects of Environmental pH change and Sodium Uptake Blockade
Short-term treatments (3h) designed to change the relative NH 3 (ΔP NH NH3 ) and NH 4 + (ΔNH 4 + ) gradients and sodium transport (J Na ) across the gills were employed to analyse the normalExpand
Active urea transport and an unusual basolateral membrane composition in the gills of a marine elasmobranch.
In elasmobranch fishes, urea occurs at high concentrations (350-600 mM) in the body fluids and tissues, where it plays an important role in osmoregulation. Retention of urea by the gill against thisExpand
Inhibition of glutamine synthetase during ammonia exposure in rainbow trout indicates a high reserve capacity to prevent brain ammonia toxicity
SUMMARY Glutamine synthetase (GSase), the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine, is present at high levels in vertebrate brain tissue and is thought to protectExpand
Rhesus glycoprotein gene expression in the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus exposed to elevated environmental ammonia levels and air
SUMMARY The mechanism(s) of ammonia excretion in the presence of elevated external ammonia are not well understood in fish. Recent studies in other organisms have revealed a new class of ammoniaExpand
Seven things fish know about ammonia and we don’t
  • P. Wright, C. Wood
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
  • 1 December 2012
In this review we pose the following seven questions related to ammonia and fish that represent gaps in our knowledge. 1. How is ammonia excretion linked to sodium uptake in freshwater fish? 2. HowExpand
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