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M2 and M4 Receptor Knockout Mice: Muscarinic Receptor Function in Cardiac and Smooth Muscle In Vitro
TLDR
Results provide direct and unambiguous evidence that M2 receptors mediate muscarinic receptor-induced bradycardia and play a role in smooth muscle contractility, whereas M4 receptors are not involved in stomach fundus, urinary bladder, or tracheal contractility.
Pulmonary gas trapping in the guinea pig and its application in pharmacological testing.
TLDR
Aerosols of histamine, methacholine, and leukotriene D4 were shown to produce gas trapping responses that were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by appropriate antagonists and provided an objective and sensitive measure of the severity of airway obstruction.
The non-peptide NK-1 receptor antagonist LY303870 inhibits neurogenic dural inflammation in guinea pigs.
TLDR
LY303870 administration potently inhibited neurogenic dural inflammation as measured by plasma protein extravasation caused by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in guinea pigs, demonstrating a suitable duration of action for a potential use in acute migraine and migraine prophylaxis.
Shifts in lung lymphocyte profiles correlate with the sequential development of acute allergic and chronic tolerant stages in a murine asthma model.
TLDR
In mice subjected to chronic aerosol challenge with ovalbumin, airway inflammation and serum IgE levels were significantly attenuated and airway hyperresponsiveness was absent, and the marked increases in lung B and T cell populations seen in the acute stage were also significantly reduced in the chronic stage of this model.
Investigations into the physiological role of muscarinic M2 and M4 muscarinic and M4 receptor subtypes using receptor knockout mice.
TLDR
The data demonstrate the usefulness of knockout mice in determining the physiological function of peripheral and central muscarinic receptors and the role of M2 receptors in salivation.
M(2) and M(4) receptor knockout mice: muscarinic receptor function in cardiac and smooth muscle in vitro.
TLDR
Results provide direct and unambiguous evidence that M(2) receptors mediate muscarinic receptor-induced bradycardia and play a role in smooth muscle contractility, whereas M(4) receptors are not involved in stomach fundus, urinary bladder, or tracheal contractility.
Pharmacological characterization of LY303870: a novel, potent and selective nonpeptide substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist.
TLDR
LY303870 is a new, potent and selective nonpeptide neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist in vitro and in vivo and will facilitate a better understanding of NK-1 receptors in physiological processes.
Pharmacologic actions of the second generation leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist LY293111: in vivo pulmonary studies
TLDR
It is concluded that LY293111 sodium is a selective leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist with potent pulmonary anti-inflammatory activity.
Muscarinic receptor knockout mice: role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors M(2), M(3), and M(4) in carbamylcholine-induced gallbladder contractility.
TLDR
Muscarinic receptor knockout mice provided direct and unambiguous evidence that M(3), and to a lesser extent, M(2) receptors are the predominant muscarinic receptors mediating gallbladder contractility, and M(4) receptors appear necessary for optimal potency of carbamylcholine in gallbladders contraction.
M1 Receptor-Mediated Nitric Oxide-Dependent Relaxation Unmasked in Stomach Fundus from M3 Receptor Knockout Mice
TLDR
Data support the presence of M1 receptor-mediated relaxation in the stomach and suggest that when the M3 receptor is eliminated or blocked, M1 receptors-mediated gastric relaxation may be enhanced, possibly leading to alterations in gastric emptying and subsequent effects on body weight.
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