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Calcium regulation of growth and differentiation of mouse epidermal cells in culture
Expression of murine epidermal differentiation markers is tightly regulated by restricted extracellular calcium concentrations in vitro
In vitro results suggest that the Ca2+ environment is a fundamental regulator of expression of epidermal differentiation markers and provide an explanation for the existence of theCa2+ gradient in vivo.
Molecular and cellular biology of intermediate filaments.
Differential Expression of Multiple Transglutaminases in Human Brain
- Soo-Youl Kim, P. Grant, Jeung-Hoon Lee, H. Pant, P. Steinert
- BiologyThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 22 October 1999
It is demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunological methods with specific antibodies that in fact three members of the transglutaminase family of enzymes are involved in normal neuronal structure and function, but their elevated expression and cross-linking activity may also contribute to neuronal degenerative disease.
Each IF system is currently the subject of intense research and the understanding of IF is increasing rapidly, and the salient features of the different types of IF are reviewed.
Bricks and mortar of the epidermal barrier
A number of diseases which display defective epidermal barrier function are the result of genetic defects of the synthesis of either CE proteins, the transglutaminase 1 cross-linking enzyme, or defective metabolism of skin lipids.
Assembly of the epidermal cornified cell envelope.
The cornified cell envelope structure is formed beneath the plasma membrane in terminally differentiating stratified squamous epithelia. It provides a vital physical barrier to these tissues in…
The Proteins Elafin, Filaggrin, Keratin Intermediate Filaments, Loricrin, and Small Proline-rich Proteins 1 and 2 Are Isodipeptide Cross-linked Components of the Human Epidermal Cornified Cell…
The data establish for the first time that these several proteins are indeed cross-linked protein components of the CE structure, and support a model for the intermediate to final stages of CE assembly: the proteins elafin, SPR1 and SPR2, and loricrin begin to be deposited on a preformed scaffold; later,Elafin deposition decreases as loricin and SPR accumulation continues to effect final assembly.
Epithelial barrier function: assembly and structural features of the cornified cell envelope.
The current understanding of CE structure, a possible mechanism of its assembly, and various disorders that cause a defective barrier are described.
Intermediate filaments: molecular architecture, assembly, dynamics and polymorphism
The microtubules and the microfilaments have always been easy to distinguish from one another on the grounds of their respective sizes, and the ability of these filaments to function in vivo depended crucially on this feature of their structure.