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Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009
Abstract. The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. TheExpand
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The International Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10): Calculation and Use of Thermodynamic Properties
This document outlines how the thermodynamic properties of seawater are evaluated using the International Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater – 2010 (TEOS-10). This thermodynamic description ofExpand
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pH of seawater
Abstract An important property of aqueous solutions is pH because it affects chemical and biochemical properties such as chemical reactions, equilibrium conditions, and biological toxicity. With theExpand
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Measurement of pH. Definition, standards, and procedures (IUPAC Recommendations 2002)
The definition of a “primary method of measurement ” has permitted a full consideration of the definition of primary standards for pH, determined by a primary method (cell without transference,Expand
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CCQM-P111 study on traceable determination of practical salinity and mass fraction of major seawater components
The first part of the study assessed the equivalence of practical salinity measurement results of a slightly diluted seawater sample from the North Atlantic, which were traceable to the SI. The studyExpand
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REVIEW ARTICLE: Major applications of electrochemical techniques at national metrology institutes
A review of the state of the art of electrochemical methods at the highest metrology level in national metrology institutes (NMIs) is given, with emphasis on standardization work (primary methods) inExpand
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Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity
This paper surveys the state of the art for primary methods for the evaluation of electrolytic conductivity in aqueous solutions as they are currently carried out in several national metrological institutes (NMIs). Expand
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Uncertainties in Determination of pH
Abstract. A statistical analysis of multi-point calibration procedure for practical measurement of pH under laboratory conditions is given. The procedure is shown to provide the necessary elementsExpand
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Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables. Part 3: seawater pH
Water dissolves many substances with which it comes into contact, leading to a variety of aqueous solutions ranging from simple and dilute to complex and highly concentrated. Of the multiple chemicalExpand
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