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Brain-Region-Specific Organoids Using Mini-bioreactors for Modeling ZIKV Exposure
A highly structured, nuclease-resistant, noncoding RNA produced by flaviviruses is required for pathogenicity.
Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates
The safety and immunogenicity data from this U.S. phase 1 trial of two vaccine candidates in younger and older adults support the selection of BNT162b2 for advancement to a pivotal phase 2–3 safety and efficacy evaluation.
Evasion of Type I Interferon by SARS-CoV-2
2′-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members
It is demonstrated that a West Nile virus mutant that lacks 2′-O MTase activity was attenuated in wild-type primary cells and mice but was pathogenic in the absence of type I interferon (IFN) signalling, and suggested an evolutionary explanation for 2-O methylation of cellular mRNA: to distinguish self from non-self RNA.
Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness
Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 expressing spike D614G (G614 virus) produced higher infectious titres in nasal washes and the trachea, but not in the lungs, supporting clinical evidence showing that the mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increase transmission.
COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 elicits human antibody and TH1 T cell responses
The robust RBD-specific antibody, T cell and favourable cytokine responses induced by the BNT162b1 mRNA vaccine suggest that it has the potential to protect against COVID-19 through multiple beneficial mechanisms.
Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to neutralization by monoclonal and serum-derived polyclonal antibodies.
As antibodies binding to spike receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain demonstrate diminished neutralization potency in vitro against some emerging variants, updated mAb cocktails targeting highly conserved regions, enhancement of mAb potency or adjustments to the spike sequences of vaccines may be needed to prevent loss of protection in vivo.
Structure and Function of Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase
The results demonstrate that the N-7 methylation activity is essential for the WNV life cycle and, thus, methyltransferase represents a novel target for flavivirus therapy.