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Histone H3K27ac separates active from poised enhancers and predicts developmental state
TLDR
The epigenetic landscape of enhancer elements in embryonic stem cells and several adult tissues in the mouse is interrogated and it is found that histone H3K27ac distinguishes active enhancers from inactive/poised enhancers and poised enhancer networks provide clues to unrealized developmental programs. Expand
Connecting microRNA Genes to the Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry of Embryonic Stem Cells
TLDR
The transcriptional regulatory circuitry of ES cells that incorporates protein-coding and miRNA genes based on high-resolution ChIP-seq data, systematic identification of miRNA promoters, and quantitative sequencing of short transcripts in multiple cell types reveals how key ES cell transcription factors promote the ES cell miRNA expression program and integrate miRNAs into the regulatory circuitry controlling ES cell identity. Expand
RNAi Double-Stranded RNA Directs the ATP-Dependent Cleavage of mRNA at 21 to 23 Nucleotide Intervals
TLDR
It is found that RNAi is ATP dependent yet uncoupled from mRNA translation, suggesting that the 21-23 nucleotide fragments from the dsRNA are guiding mRNA cleavage. Expand
c-Myc Regulates Transcriptional Pause Release
TLDR
It is reported that promoter-proximal pausing is a general feature of transcription by Pol II in mammalian cells and thus an additional step where regulation of gene expression occurs, and that the transcription factor c-Myc, a key regulator of cellular proliferation, plays a major role in Pol II pause release. Expand
In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9
TLDR
Six smaller Cas9 orthologues are characterized and it is shown that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being more than 1 kilobase shorter. Expand
Proliferating Cells Express mRNAs with Shortened 3' Untranslated Regions and Fewer MicroRNA Target Sites
TLDR
It is found that states of increased proliferation are associated with widespread reductions in the 3′UTR-based regulatory capacity of mRNAs, which is a characteristic of gene expression during immune cell activation and correlates with proliferation across diverse cell types and tissues. Expand
Specificity of microRNA target selection in translational repression.
TLDR
The ability of an miRNA to translationally repress a target mRNA is largely dictated by the free energy of binding of the first eight nucleotides in the 5' region of the miRNA, however, G:U wobble base-pairing in this region interferes with activity beyond that predicted on the basis of thermodynamic stability. Expand
siRNAs can function as miRNAs.
TLDR
It is shown that a short interfering RNA (siRNA) can repress expression of a target mRNA with partially complementary binding sites in its 3' UTR, much like the demonstrated function of endogenously encoded microRNAs (miRNAs). Expand
MicroRNA sponges: competitive inhibitors of small RNAs in mammalian cells
TLDR
These competitive inhibitors are transcripts expressed from strong promoters, containing multiple, tandem binding sites to a microRNA of interest that specifically inhibit microRNAs with a complementary heptameric seed, such that a single sponge can be used to block an entire microRNA seed family. Expand
Sizing and mapping of early adenovirus mRNAs by gel electrophoresis of S1 endonuclease-digested hybrids
TLDR
A simple and sensitive method for detecting, sizing and mapping RNA transcripts from viral or cloned DNAs has been developed and used to examine the cytoplasmic transcripts produced during the early phase of adenovirus 2 (Ad2) infection of HeLa cells. Expand
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