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Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus.
The molecular basis of PTSAg toxicity is presented in the context of two diseases known to be caused by these exotoxins: toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning. Expand
The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage
It is shown here that TSSE is not demonstrably transferred by lysogeny; moreover, the gene is cloned and the cloned product is serologically and biologically indistinguishable from the native protein, and that the TSSE determinant is associated with a larger DNA segment that is absent or rearranged in TSSE− strains. Expand
Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update.
It is proposed that there are five distinct groups of bacterial superantigens, which are believed to be responsible for the most severe features of toxic shock syndrome. Expand
Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission
G glycerol monolaurate—a widely used antimicrobial compound with inhibitory activity against the production of MIP-3α and other proinflammatory cytokines—can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo it can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. Expand
Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: Phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence
The results show that phage-mediated recombination has played a critical role in the emergence of a new, unusually virulent clone of serotype M3 GAS. Expand
Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A.
From the study of this cluster of severe streptococcal infections with a toxic shock-like syndrome, it is concluded that in the Rocky Mountain region, more virulent group A Streptococci have reappeared that produce the pyrogenic toxin A associated with scarlet fever. Expand
Cloning, characterization, and sequencing of an accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus
The cloning of this gene in Escherichia coli by using an inserted transposon (Tn551) as a cloning probe is described, and the cloned gene showed considerable variation with respect to different exoproteins and different host strains compared with the chromosomal agr determinant. Expand
Regulation of exoprotein gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by agr
Inability of the mutant strain to express either a cloned TSST-1 gene or the chromosomal gene indicates that the transposon has inactivated a trans-active positive control element. Expand
Comparative Molecular Analysis of Community- or Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Data suggest that CA-MRSA strains may represent a new acquisition of SCCmec DNA in a previously susceptible genetic background that was capable of causing nmTSS via superantigen production. Expand
Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses.
Toxic-shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute onset, multiorgan illness which resembles severe scarlet fever. The illness is caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains that express TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1),Expand