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Agonists determine the pattern of G-protein activation in μ-opioid receptor-mediated supraspinal analgesia
TLDR
Morphine, heroin, methadone, and buprenorphine showed different patterns of G-protein activation in evoking mu-opioid receptor-mediated supraspinal antinociception, suggesting that after binding identical receptors, each agonist determines the classes of GTP-binding regulatory transducer proteins to be activated. Expand
Chronic Pain Leads to Concomitant Noradrenergic Impairment and Mood Disorders
TLDR
Long-term neuropathic pain leads to anxio-depressive-like behaviors that are more predominant than the aversion of a painful experience, consistent with the impairment of noradrenergic system described in depressive disorders. Expand
The Mu-Opioid Receptor and the NMDA Receptor Associate in PAG Neurons: Implications in Pain Control
TLDR
It is reported that mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and NMDAR NR1 subunits associate in the postsynaptic structures of PAG neurons, a finding that could be exploited in developing bifunctional drugs that would act exclusively on those N MDARs associated with MORs. Expand
Activation of I2‐imidazoline receptors enhances supraspinal morphine analgesia in mice: a model to detect agonist and antagonist activities at these receptors
TLDR
Functional interaction between I2‐imidazoline and opioid receptors is demonstrated and the involvement of Gi‐Go transducer proteins in this modulatory effect is suggested. Expand
The cannabinoid receptor 1 associates with NMDA receptors to produce glutamatergic hypofunction: implications in psychosis and schizophrenia
TLDR
The purpose of the present review is to draw the attention of the reader to the newly described functional and physical CB1–NMDAR association, which may elucidate the scenario required for the rapid and efficacious control of NMDAR activity. Expand
Active behaviours produced by antidepressants and opioids in the mouse tail suspension test.
TLDR
The results show that at least two behaviourally distinct processes occur in the TST, highlighting the antidepressant-like effects of opioids evident in this test, and suggest that swinging and curling behaviours are mediated by enhanced monoamine and opioid neurotransmission, respectively. Expand
Mu-Opioid Receptors Transiently Activate the Akt-nNOS Pathway to Produce Sustained Potentiation of PKC-Mediated NMDAR-CaMKII Signaling
TLDR
The Akt-nNOS pathway acts as a primer for morphine-triggered events which leads to the sustained potentiation of the NMDAR-CaMKII pathway and MOR inhibition, ultimately leading to morphine tolerance. Expand
RGS9 proteins facilitate acute tolerance to mu‐opioid effects
TLDR
It is reported that regulators of G‐protein signalling (RGS) proteins modulate the timing and amplitude of opioid signals by a push–pull mechanism, and in mice with impaired RGS9, the potency and, in particular, the duration of opioid antinociception increased. Expand
Morphine alters the selective association between mu-opioid receptors and specific RGS proteins in mouse periaqueductal gray matter
TLDR
In mice, an intracerebroventricular dose of 10 nmol morphine produced acute tolerance at mu receptors but did not disrupt the co-precipitation of mu-delta receptor complexes, however, this opioid reduced by more than 50% the co -precIPitation of G alpha i/o/z subunits with mu receptors, and altered their association with some of the RGS proteins at 30 min, 3 h and 24 h after its administration. Expand
Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 show differences in their activation of mu opioid receptor-regulated G proteins in supraspinal antinociception in mice.
TLDR
Agonists exhibit differences in activating the variety of GTP-binding proteins regulated by mu opioid receptors in the production of supraspinal antinociception. Expand
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