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Olfactory receptors in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates
The results support the notion that class I receptors may be specialized for detecting water-soluble odorants and class II receptors for recognizing volatile odorants, and the number and diversity of olfactory receptor genes in different species provides insight into the origin and the evolution of this unique gene family.
Expression of olfactory receptors during development in Xenopus laevis.
Using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, it was found that expression of Xenopus olfactory marker protein and of class I receptors, which are thought to be responsible for the perception of water-soluble odorants, was detectable as early as stage 32, less than 2 days after fertilization.
Two olfactory marker proteins in Xenopus laevis.
The lateral location of XOMP1 and medial location ofXOMP2 correspond to the suggested locations of olfactory receptor neurons responsive to water-borne and air-borne odorants, respectively, and two internal domains were highly conserved between amphibian and mammalian OMPs, suggesting some functional relevance.
Two olfactory marker proteins in Xenopus laevis
Two homologous genes encoding olfactory marker proteins have been identified that share a sequence identity with mammalian OMPs of about 50% in Xenopus laevis; sequence comparison revealed significant variability in the N‐terminus and C-terminus regions; in contrast, two internal domains were highly conserved between amphibian and mammalian O MPs, suggesting some functional relevance.
G protein betagamma complexes in circumvallate taste cells involved in bitter transduction.
Monitoring the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate response in circumvallate tissue homogenates upon stimulation with denatonium benzoate demonstrated that a glutathione S-transferase-GRK3ct fusion protein-a Gbetagamma scavenger-attenuates the bitter tastant-induced second messenger reaction.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling in the rat vomeronasal organ: role of an adenylyl cyclase type VI.
The present study indicates that male rat urinary components in female rat vomeronasal organ microvillar preparations not only induce a rapid and transient IP(3) signal, but in addition, the level of
G Protein βγ Complexes in Circumvallate Taste Cells Involved in Bitter Transduction
Data support the concept that the denatonium benzoate-induced IP 3 response is mediated by an activation of PLCβ 2 via a Gβγ complex, possibly composed of Gβ 3 as the predominant β subunit and Gγ 3 , and imply that multiple second messenger pathways may exist in individual taste receptor cells.