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Preventing insect adaptation to insect-resistant crops: are seed mixtures or refugia the best strategy?
TLDR
It is shown that if insects can move from plant to plant, seed mixtures may actually hasten insect resistance compared with pure stands of toxic plants, suggesting potential problems with a third strategy, tissue-specific expression of toxins, which essentially provides a mixture of toxin-free and toxin-containing tissues on the same plant.
Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bt maize in French and US corn belt populations of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis
TLDR
It is suggested that resistance is probably rare enough in France and the northern US corn belt for the high-dose plus refuge strategy to delay resistance to Bt maize.
Modeling the Development of Resistance by Stalk-Boring Lepidoptera (Crambidae) in Areas with Irrigated Transgenic Corn
TLDR
The population dynamics and population genetics of two bivoltine species of corn borers are modeled in a hypothetical region of irrigated transgenic and nontransgenic corn to examine the potential impact of behavior on resistance development.
Seasonal Population Dynamics of the Potato Psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Its Associated Pathogen “Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum” in Potatoes in the Southern Great Plains of North America
TLDR
The results show that the pest management program that was used can be effective at controlling development of the psyllid and ultimately reducing the incidence of ZC.
Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab in southern United States Corn Belt population of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).
TLDR
The results suggest the frequency of resistance alleles is low enough that the high-dose refuge resistance management strategy may be effective for delaying resistance evolution in O. nubilalis to Bt corn in the southern Corn Belt.
Modeling the development of resistance by stalk-boring lepidopteran insects (Crambidae) in areas with transgenic corn and frequent insecticide use.
TLDR
The population dynamics and population genetics of two bivoltine species of corn borers are simulated in a hypothetical region of irrigated transgenic and nontransgenic corn where insecticide was applied only to the nontransogenic refuge crop.
Frequency of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab in Southern United States Corn Belt Population of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
TLDR
The results suggest the frequency of resistance alleles is low enough that the high-dose refuge resistance management strategy may be effective for delaying resistance evolution in O. nubilalis to Bt corn in the southern Corn Belt.
The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
TLDR
The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination.
Modeling the Development of Resistance by Stalk-Boring Lepidopteran Insects (Crambidae) in Areas with Transgenic Corn and Frequent Insecticide Use
TLDR
Estimation of populationynamics andpopulationgenetics of twobivoltine species of corn borers and the European corn borer found that the development of resistance to the transgenic crop was slowed signiÞcantly and a consistently sprayed refuge 40% of the corn acreage was an inadequate resistance management strategy.
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