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Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking
TLDR
An unprecedented role for dopamine in the regulation of drug taking in real time is revealed using electrochemical technology to investigate the role of phasic dopamine signalling in the nucleus accumbens.
Dopamine Operates as a Subsecond Modulator of Food Seeking
TLDR
The results strongly implicate subsecond dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens as a real-time modulator of food-seeking behavior.
A selective role for dopamine in reward learning
TLDR
Insight is provided into the neurobiology of a form of stimulus–reward learning that confers increased susceptibility to disorders of impulse control and in individuals with a propensity for this form of learning, reward cues come to powerfully motivate and control behaviour.
Prolonged Dopamine Signalling in Striatum Signals Proximity and Value of Distant Rewards
TLDR
An extended mode of reward-predictive dopamine signalling in the striatum that emerged as rats moved towards distant goals could provide sustained motivational drive, a control mechanism that may be important for normal behaviour and that can be impaired in a range of neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Disruption of NMDAR-dependent burst firing by dopamine neurons provides selective assessment of phasic dopamine-dependent behavior
TLDR
The role of phasic DA was addressed by attenuating DA neuron burst firing and subsequent DA release, without altering tonic neural activity, and dramatically attenuated learning about cues that predicted rewarding and aversive events while leaving many other DA-dependent behaviors unaffected.
Overoxidation of carbon-fiber microelectrodes enhances dopamine adsorption and increases sensitivity.
TLDR
Stimulated release in the caudate-putamen was pharmacologically characterized in vivo using Ro-04-1284 and pargyline, and was consistent with that expected for dopamine, and the temporal response of the sensor is slower with the more positive anodic limit.
Corticotropin‐releasing factor increases mouse ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron firing through a protein kinase C‐dependent enhancement of Ih
TLDR
The results demonstrated that CRF acted on the CRF‐R1 to stimulate the PLC–PKC signalling pathway, which in turn enhanced Ih to increase VTA dopamine neuron firing, providing a cellular mechanism of the interaction between CRF and dopamine.
Phasic Dopamine Release Evoked by Abused Substances Requires Cannabinoid Receptor Activation
TLDR
Differences in the temporal profile of dopamine concentration transients caused by acute doses of nicotine, ethanol, and cocaine in the nucleus accumbens shell of freely moving rats are demonstrated, suggesting that an increase in endocannabinoid tone facilitates the effects of commonly abused drugs on subsecond dopamine release.
Real-time measurement of dopamine fluctuations after cocaine in the brain of behaving rats.
TLDR
Using this method, it is shown that cocaine modifies dopamine release in two ways: dopamine concentration transients increase in frequency and magnitude, whereas a gradual increase in steady-state dopamine concentration occurs over 90 s.
Severe stress switches CRF action in the nucleus accumbens from appetitive to aversive
TLDR
Corticotropin-releasing factor, a neuropeptide released in response to acute stressors and other arousing environmental stimuli, acts in the nucleus accumbens of naive mice to increase dopamine release through coactivation of the receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2, offering a biological substrate for the switch in affect which is central to stress-induced depressive disorders.
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