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A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death
While searching for alternative reading-frame peptides encoded by influenza A virus that are recognized by CD8+ T cells, we found an abundant immunogenic peptide encoded by the +1 reading frame ofExpand
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Open Reading Frame (ORF) 3b, ORF 6, and Nucleocapsid Proteins Function as Interferon Antagonists
ABSTRACT The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is highly pathogenic in humans, with a death rate near 10%. This high pathogenicity suggests that SARS-CoV has developedExpand
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Influenza Virus Transmission Is Dependent on Relative Humidity and Temperature
Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. Twenty experiments performed at relativeExpand
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Broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stalk–specific antibodies require FcγR interactions for protection against influenza virus in vivo
Neutralizing antibodies against influenza viruses have traditionally been thought to provide protection exclusively through their variable region; the contributions of mechanisms conferred by the FcExpand
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The influenza virus NEP (NS2 protein) mediates the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoproteins
Nuclear import and export of viral nucleic acids is crucial for the replication cycle of many viruses, and elucidation of the mechanism of these steps may provide a paradigm for understanding generalExpand
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Activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Is Inhibited by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein
ABSTRACT We present a novel mechanism by which viruses may inhibit the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) cascade. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein NS1 of influenza virus is shown toExpand
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Influenza A virus lacking the NS1 gene replicates in interferon-deficient systems.
The NS1 protein is the only nonstructural protein encoded by influenza A virus. It has been proposed that the NS1 performs several regulatory functions during the viral replication cycle, includingExpand
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Glycan microarray analysis of the hemagglutinins from modern and pandemic influenza viruses reveals different receptor specificities.
Influenza A virus specificity for the host is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to receptors containing glycans with terminal sialic acids. Avian virusesExpand
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Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein Prevents Activation of NF-κB and Induction of Alpha/Beta Interferon
ABSTRACT The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) system represents one of the first lines of defense against virus infections. As a result, most viruses encode IFN antagonistic factors which enhanceExpand
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Human Host Factors Required for Influenza Virus Replication
Influenza A virus is an RNA virus that encodes up to 11 proteins and this small coding capacity demands that the virus use the host cellular machinery for many aspects of its life cycle. Knowledge ofExpand
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