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Identification of pinnatoxins and discovery of their fatty acid ester metabolites in mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) from eastern Canada.
Although acyl esters of a range of other phycotoxins are known to form as metabolites in shellfish, this is the first report of their existence for this particular toxin class. Expand
Elucidation of matrix effects and performance of solid-phase extraction for LC-MS/MS analysis of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) neurotoxins in cyanobacteria.
The procedures developed allow the sensitive and effective analysis of trace BMAA and DAB levels in cyanobacteria and showed that the DAB suppression may be due to closely eluting compounds, including lysine, histidine, arginine and three other compounds with [M + H](+) m/z of 88, 164 and 191. Expand
Toxins in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning episodes in China.
LC-MS/MS analysis showed that high concentrations of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and their acyl esters were responsible for the incidents and it shows that high levels of lipophilic toxins can accumulate in shellfish from the Chinese coast. Expand
Freeze-drying for the stabilisation of shellfish toxins in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference materials
Homogeneity was assessed through replicate analysis of the phycotoxins, and was found to be similar for wet and freeze-dried materials, for both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins. Expand
Effects of cooking and heat treatment on concentration and tissue distribution of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis).
Using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, the influence of conventional steaming and another heat treatment on the level of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels was investigated, and it was shown that degradation does occur in mussel tissues after prolonged exposure to high temperatures. Expand
Feasibility of gamma irradiation as a stabilisation technique in the preparation of tissue reference materials for a range of shellfish toxins
The results suggest that this technique is not effective for materials containing domoic acid, and does, however, merit further investigation as a stabilisation procedure for preparation of shellfish tissue materials for some lipophilic toxins, in particular azaspiracids. Expand
Tissue distribution, effects of cooking and parameters affecting the extraction of azaspiracids from mussels, Mytilus edulis, prior to analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
  • P. Hess, L. Nguyen, +4 authors T. Aune
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International…
  • 1 July 2005
Results may justify the practise to only analyse the digestive gland, a step considered necessary to achieve adequate detection limits for azaspiracids both in the mouse bioassay and other analytical techniques. Expand
Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of domoic acid and lipophilic shellfish toxins with selected reaction monitoring and optional confirmation by library searching of product ion spectra.
LC/MS methodology for the analysis of domoic acid and lipophilic toxins in shellfish was developed using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer and performed well in terms of LOD, linearity, precision, and trueness. Expand
Isolation, structure elucidation, relative LC-MS response, and in vitro toxicity of azaspiracids from the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum.
Three new azaspiracids with molecular weights of 715, 815, and 829 (AZA33, AZA34, and AZA35, respectively) in mussels, seawater, and Azadinium spinosum culture are identified and the structures of 3 and 4 are consistent with AZAs being biosynthetically assembled from the amino end. Expand
Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures
An analytical procedure is described for the determination of AZAs in cultures of A. spinosum with a focus on the formation of AZA methyl esters as artefacts during extraction and sample pre-treatment, to clarify the formation and structure of methylated AZA analogues. Expand