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Tolerance, danger, and the extended family.
The possibility that the immune system does not care about self and non-self, that its primary driving force is the need to detect and protect against danger, and that it does not do the job alone, but receives positive and negative communications from an extended network of other bodily tissues is discussed.
The Danger Model: A Renewed Sense of Self
A model of immunity based on the idea that the immune system is more concerned with entities that do damage than with those that are foreign is outlined.
A conditioned dendritic cell can be a temporal bridge between a CD4+ T-helper and a T-killer cell
It is found that the three cells need not meet simultaneously but that the helper cell can first engage and ‘condition’ the dendritic cell, which then becomes empowered to stimulate a killer cell.
Natural adjuvants: Endogenous activators of dendritic cells
It is reported here that, in the absence of any foreign substances, dendritic cells can be activated by endogenous signals received from cells that are stressed, virally infected or killed necrotically, but not by healthy cells or those dying apoptotically.
Hydrophobicity: an ancient damage-associated molecular pattern that initiates innate immune responses
It is proposed that immune responses are initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns or by tissue-derived danger/alarm signals and these two groups of molecules might not be mutually exclusive.
An innate sense of danger.
Danger signals: SOS to the immune system.
Neonatal Tolerance Revisited: Turning on Newborn T Cells with Dendritic Cells
Reexamination of the classic Neonatal tolerance experiments showed that tolerance is not an intrinsic property of the newborn immune system, but that the nature of the antigen-presenting cell determines whether the outcome is neonatal tolerance or immunization.
Friendly and dangerous signals: is the tissue in control?
In their own defense, tissues send a panoply of signals that initiate immunity and guide the choice of effector class. T(H)1-T(H)2 and T(reg) is far too simple a representation of the breathtaking
B cells turn off virgin but not memory T cells.
These findings may relate to the phenomena of low- and high-zone tolerance, neonatal tolerance, and the beneficial effect of blood transfusions on allograft survival.