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Molecular Analysis of the Pathogenicity Locus and Polymorphism in the Putative Negative Regulator of Toxin Production (TcdC) among Clostridium difficile Clinical Isolates
ABSTRACT The pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) of Clostridium difficile contains toxin A and B genes and three accessory genes, including tcdD and tcdC, which are supposed to code for the positive andExpand
Prospective study of Clostridium difficile infections in Europe with phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of the isolates.
Ooing epidemiological surveillance of cases of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea, with periodic characterisation of the strains involved, is required to detect clustering of cases in time and space and to monitor the emergence of specific highly virulent clones. Expand
Molecular and Genomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Surface-Anchored Proteins from Clostridium difficile
ABSTRACT The gene slpA, encoding the S-layer precursor protein in the virulent Clostridium difficile strains C253 and 79–685, was identified. The precursor protein carries a C-terminal highlyExpand
A controlled trial of two acellular vaccines and one whole-cell vaccine against pertussis. Progetto Pertosse Working Group.
The two acellular DTP vaccines studied were safe, immunogenic, and efficacious against pertussis, whereas the efficacy of the whole-cell DTP vaccine was unexpectedly low. Expand
Emergence of reduced susceptibility to metronidazole in Clostridium difficile.
The emergence of reduced susceptibility to metronidazole is demonstrated in 24.4% of the recent C. difficile ribotype 001 isolates from the authors' institution, which could have implications in the clinical setting due to the poor penetration of metronIDazole into the colon. Expand
Underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile across Europe: the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with
An estimated 40 000 inpatients with C difficile infection are potentially undiagnosed every year in 482 European hospitals, according to a questionnaire-based study at 482 participating hospitals across 20 European countries. Expand
Characterization of surface layer proteins from different Clostridium difficile clinical isolates.
Data indicate that the presence of S-layer on C. difficile strains is common and that its glycoprotein subunits show a certain degree of heterogeneity. Expand
Surface layer proteins from Clostridium difficile induce inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in human monocytes and dendritic cells.
C. difficile SLPs may contribute to the pathogenicity of the bacterium by perturbing the fine balance of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. Expand
A European survey of diagnostic methods and testing protocols for Clostridium difficile.
A survey of the methods used in clinical microbiology laboratories in Europe to diagnose infection with Clostridium difficile suggests marked discrepancies between laboratories and also between countries regarding the criteria by which C. Difficile is investigated for and the methods and the strategies used for the diagnosis. Expand
Antigenic variants in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated children.
Compared the frequencies of Prn and PT S1 subunit variants in strains isolated from unvaccinated children, and from children vaccinated with two acellular and one whole-cell pertussis vaccine, it is suggested that Prn1 strains are more affected by vaccine-induced immunity than Prn2 and Prn3 strains. Expand