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Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential.
  • M. Bradley, P. Lang
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of behavior therapy and experimental…
  • 1 March 1994
The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique that directly measures the pleasure, arousal, and dominance associated with a person's affective reaction to a wideExpand
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International Affective Picture System (IAPS) : Technical Manual and Affective Ratings
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is being developed to provide a set of normative emotional stimuli for experimental investigations of emotion and attention. The goal is to develop aExpand
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Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW): Instruction Manual and Affective Ratings
depressed individuals recalled fewer positive words than did their taken from the Affective Norms for English. Words list (ANEW, Bradley Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Instruction manualExpand
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The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention.
  • P. Lang
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American psychologist
  • 1 May 1995
Emotions are action dispositions--states of vigilant readiness that vary widely in reported affect, physiology, and behavior. They are driven, however, by only 2 opponent motivational systems,Expand
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Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions.
Colored photographic pictures that varied widely across the affective dimensions of valence (pleasant-unpleasant) and arousal (excited-calm) were each viewed for a 6-s period while facialExpand
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Brain potentials in affective picture processing: covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report
Emotionally arousing picture stimuli evoked scalp-recorded event-related potentials. A late, slow positive voltage change was observed, which was significantly larger for affective than neutralExpand
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Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing.
Emotional reactions are organized by underlying motivational states--defensive and appetitive--that have evolved to promote the survival of individuals and species. Affective responses were measuredExpand
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Affective picture processing: the late positive potential is modulated by motivational relevance.
Recent studies have shown that the late positive component of the event-related-potential (ERP) is enhanced for emotional pictures, presented in an oddball paradigm, evaluated as distant from anExpand
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