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Abscisic Acid Inhibits Type 2C Protein Phosphatases via the PYR/PYL Family of START Proteins
TLDR
PYR/PYLs are ABA receptors functioning at the apex of a negative regulatory pathway that controls ABA signaling by inhibiting PP2Cs, illustrating the power of the chemical genetic approach for sidestepping genetic redundancy.
Abscisic acid: emergence of a core signaling network.
TLDR
A new model for ABA action has been proposed and validated, in which the soluble PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors function at the apex of a negative regulatory pathway to directly regulate PP2C phosphatases, which in turn directly regulate SnRK2 kinases.
Modulation of drought resistance by the abscisic acid receptor PYL5 through inhibition of clade A PP2Cs.
TLDR
This work indicates that PYL5 is a cytosolic and nuclear ABA receptor that activates ABA signaling through direct inhibition of clade A PP2Cs, and shows that enhanced resistance to drought can be obtained through Pyl5-mediated inhibition ofClade APP2Cs.
The abscisic acid receptor PYR1 in complex with abscisic acid
TLDR
The crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana PYR1 is presented, which consists of a dimer in which one of the subunits is bound to ABA, indicating that conformational changes in these loops have a critical role in the stabilization of the hormone–receptor complex.
Protein Phosphatases 2C Regulate the Activation of the Snf1-Related Kinase OST1 by Abscisic Acid in Arabidopsis[W]
TLDR
Evidence that PP2Cs are directly implicated in the ABA-dependent activation of OST1 is provided and the activation mechanism of AMPK/Snf1-related kinases through the inhibition of regulating PP2C is conserved from plants to human.
Gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes of the protein phosphatase 2C HAB1 reveal its role as a negative regulator of abscisic acid signalling.
TLDR
It is shown that constitutive expression of HAB1 in Arabidopsis under a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter led to reduced ABA sensitivity both in seeds and vegetative tissues, compared to wild-type plants, providing new genetic evidence on the function of a PP2C in ABA signalling.
The Short-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase ABA2 Catalyzes the Conversion of Xanthoxin to Abscisic Aldehyde Online version contains Web-only data. Article, publication date, and citation information can be
TLDR
The results of this work confirm the xanthoxin→abscisic aldehyde→ABA transition as the last steps of the major ABA biosynthetic pathway.
Arabidopsis PYR/PYL/RCAR Receptors Play a Major Role in Quantitative Regulation of Stomatal Aperture and Transcriptional Response to Abscisic Acid[C][W]
TLDR
Results show that ABA perception by PYR/PYLs plays a major role in regulation of seed germination and establishment, basal ABA signaling required for vegetative and reproductive growth, stomatal aperture, and transcriptional response to the hormone.
In vitro Reconstitution of an ABA Signaling Pathway
TLDR
This work shows that by combining the recently identified ABA receptor PYR1 with the type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) ABI1, the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2, and the transcription factor ABF2/AREB1, it can reconstitute ABA-triggered phosphorylation of the transcription factors in vitro and define a minimal set of core components of a complete major ABA signalling pathway.
Triple Loss of Function of Protein Phosphatases Type 2C Leads to Partial Constitutive Response to Endogenous Abscisic Acid1[C][W][OA]
TLDR
Results indicate that ABA response is finely tuned by the integrated action of these genes, which is required to prevent a constitutive response to endogenous ABA that might have a deleterious effect on growth and development in the absence of environmental stress.
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