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  • Influence
The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice.
OBJECTIVE A primary behavioral pathology in drug addiction is the overpowering motivational strength and decreased ability to control the desire to obtain drugs. In this review the authors exploreExpand
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Dopamine transmission in the initiation and expression of drug- and stress-induced sensitization of motor activity
Progress has been made over the last 10 years in determining the neural mechanisms of sensitization induced by amphetamine-like psychostimulants, opioids and stressors. Changes in dopamineExpand
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The Circuitry Mediating Cocaine-Induced Reinstatement of Drug-Seeking Behavior
The role of limbic-striato-pallidal circuitry in cocaine-induced reinstatement was evaluated. The transient inhibition of brain nuclei associated with motor systems [including the ventral tegmentalExpand
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The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction
  • P. Kalivas
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 1 August 2009
Addiction is associated with neuroplasticity in the corticostriatal brain circuitry that is important for guiding adaptive behaviour. The hierarchy of corticostriatal information processing thatExpand
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Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization: a critical review of preclinical studies
Abstract Rationale and objectives: Repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse results in a progressive and enduring enhancement in the motor stimulant effect elicited by a subsequent drug challenge.Expand
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A circuitry model of the expression of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine-like psychostimulants
Repeated exposure to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine produces behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an augmented locomotor response to a subsequent psychostimulantExpand
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Neuroadaptations in cystine-glutamate exchange underlie cocaine relapse
Repeated cocaine treatment and withdrawal produces changes in brain function thought to be involved in relapse to drug use. Withdrawal from repeated cocaine reduced in vivo extracellular glutamate inExpand
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Prefrontal Glutamate Release into the Core of the Nucleus Accumbens Mediates Cocaine-Induced Reinstatement of Drug-Seeking Behavior
The relative contributions of glutamate and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens to cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior were assessed. When extinguished cocaineExpand
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Extinction circuits for fear and addiction overlap in prefrontal cortex.
Extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that suppresses a previously conditioned response. Both fear and drug seeking are conditioned responses that can lead to maladaptive behavior whenExpand
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The Origin and Neuronal Function of In Vivo Nonsynaptic Glutamate
Basal extracellular glutamate sampled in vivo is present in micromolar concentrations in the extracellular space outside the synaptic cleft, and neither the origin nor the function of this glutamateExpand
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