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Large colonial organisms with coordinated growth in oxygenated environments 2.1 Gyr ago
TLDR
The discovery of centimetre-sized structures from the 2.1-Gyr-old black shales of the Palaeoproterozoic Francevillian B Formation in Gabon are reported, which are interpreted as highly organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms.
Agnathans and the origin of jawed vertebrates
TLDR
The origins of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) lie somewhere within the ranks of long-extinct jawless fishes, represented today as the lampreys and hagfishes, and recent discoveries have revitalized debates about the relationships of ancient fishes and given fresh insights into early vertebrate history.
Jaw transformation with gain of symmetry after Dlx5/Dlx6 inactivation: Mirror of the past?
TLDR
This finding supports the notion that Dlx genes are homeotic genes associated with morphological novelty in the vertebrate lineage and first homeotic‐like transformation found in this Hox‐free region after gene inactivation.
The phylogeny of the Craniata, with particular reference to the significance of fossil “agnathans”
TLDR
It is concluded that the fossil jawless Craniata provide little information on the affinities of the CraniATA, but they do provide complementary data on distribution of characters.
A primitive fossil fish sheds light on the origin of bony fishes
TLDR
This first tentative reconstruction of a 400-million-year-old fossil fish from China is presented, which changes the polarity of many characters used at present in reconstructing osteichthyan inter-relationships and offers new insights into the origin and evolution of osteichthyans.
Jaws and teeth of the earliest bony fishes
TLDR
Andreolepis and Lophosteus are not only the oldest but also the most phylogenetically basal securely identified osteichthyans known so far, indicating that they can be assigned to the stem group.
The Giant Cretaceous Coelacanth (Actinistia, Sarcopterygii) Megalocoelacanthus dobiei Schwimmer, Stewart & Williams, 1994, and Its Bearing on Latimerioidei Interrelationships
TLDR
The cladistic analysis supports the sister-group relationship of Megalocoelacanthus and Libys within Latimeriidae and suggests that toothless, large-sized coelacanths evolved independently in both Latimer iidae and Mawsoniidae during the Mesozoic.
Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Haikouichthys somewhat resembles the ammocoete larva of modern lampreys, this is because of shared general craniate characters; adult lampreys and hagfishes (the cyclostomes if monophyletic) are probably derived in many respects.
Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy
TLDR
Galeaspids, a 435-million-year-old ‘ostracoderm’ group from China and Vietnam, is described, which indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.
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