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Tissue Cells Feel and Respond to the Stiffness of Their Substrate
An understanding of how tissue cells—including fibroblasts, myocytes, neurons, and other cell types—sense matrix stiffness is just emerging with quantitative studies of cells adhering to gels with which elasticity can be tuned to approximate that of tissues.
Effects of substrate stiffness on cell morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and adhesion.
The hypothesis that mechanical factors impact different cell types in fundamentally different ways, and can trigger specific changes similar to those stimulated by soluble ligands, is supported.
Nonlinear elasticity in biological gels
A molecular theory that accounts for strain-stiffening in a range of molecularly distinct gels formed from cytoskeletal and extracellular proteins and that reveals universal stress–strain relations at low to intermediate strains is reported.
Actin-binding protein requirement for cortical stability and efficient locomotion.
Findings establish that ABP functions to stabilize cortical actin in vivo and is required for efficient cell locomotion.
Fibroblast adaptation and stiffness matching to soft elastic substrates.
- J. Solon, I. Levental, K. Sengupta, Penelope C. Georges, P. Janmey
- Biology, EngineeringBiophysical journal
- 15 December 2007
Within a range of stiffness spanning that of soft tissues, fibroblasts tune their internal stiffness to match that of their substrate, and modulation of cellular stiffness by the rigidity of the environment may be a mechanism used to direct cell migration and wound repair.
Matrices with compliance comparable to that of brain tissue select neuronal over glial growth in mixed cortical cultures.
- Penelope C. Georges, W. Miller, D. Meaney, E. Sawyer, P. Janmey
- BiologyBiophysical journal
- 15 April 2006
Data emphasize the potential importance of material substrate stiffness as a design feature in the next generation of biomaterials intended to promote neuronal regeneration across a lesion in the central nervous system while simultaneously minimizing the ingrowth of astrocytes into the lesion area.
Viscoelastic properties of vimentin compared with other filamentous biopolymer networks
Parallel measurements of the viscoelasticity of tubulin, actin, and vimentin polymers are described and suggest possible specialized roles for the different classes of filaments in vivo.
The cytoskeleton and cell signaling: component localization and mechanical coupling.
- P. Janmey
- Biology, EngineeringPhysiological reviews
- 7 January 1998
The three-dimensional intracellular network formed by the filamentous polymers comprising the cytoskeletal affects the way cells sense their extracellular environment and respond to stimuli and can influence ion channel activity at the plasma membrane of cells and conduct mechanical stresses from the cell membrane to internal organelles.
Phosphoinositide regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
This review presents tantalizing evidence that suggests how binding of selected cytoskeletal proteins to membrane PPIs may promote PPI clustering into raft lipid microdomains, alter their accessibility to other proteins, and even distort the bilayer conformation.
MARCKS is an actin filament crosslinking protein regulated by protein kinase C and calcium–calmodulin
Modulation of the actin crosslinking activity of the MARCKS protein by calmodulin and phosphorylation represents a potential convergence of the calcium–calmodulinand PKC signal transduction pathways in the regulation of theActin cytoskeleton.