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Biological identifications through DNA barcodes
It is established that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals and will provide a reliable, cost–effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Expand
Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species
It is indicated that sequence divergences at COI regularly enable the discrimination of closely allied species in all animal phyla except the Cnidaria and constraints on intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergence arising through selective sweeps mediated via interactions with the nuclear genome. Expand
BOLD : The Barcode of Life Data System
The Barcode of Life Data System ( BOLD ) is an informatics workbench aiding the acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records. By assembling molecular, morphological andExpand
Identification of Birds through DNA Barcodes
The finding of large COI sequence differences between, as compared to small differences within, species confirms the effectiveness of COI barcodes for the identification of bird species, and implies that a standard screening threshold of sequence difference could speed the discovery of new animal species. Expand
Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator.
The results add to the evidence that cryptic species are prevalent in tropical regions, a critical issue in efforts to document global species richness, and illustrate the value of DNA barcoding, especially when coupled with traditional taxonomic tools, in disclosing hidden diversity. Expand
bold: The Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org)
A brief introduction to the key elements of bold is provided, their functional capabilities are discussed, and their computational resources are examined by examining computational resources and future prospects. Expand
A DNA-Based Registry for All Animal Species: The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System
A persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom is developed based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Expand
DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.
It is shown that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica, suggesting DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings. Expand
Methodologies for Allozyme Analysis Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis A Practical Handbook
A transformer differential relay monitors the current flowing through the primary and secondary windings of a power transformer and disconnects the transformer from a power source feeding theExpand
Universal primer cocktails for fish DNA barcoding
The results show that M13-tailed primer cocktails are more effective than conventional degenerate primers, allowing barcode work on taxonomically diverse samples to be carried out in a high-throughput fashion. Expand