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Methods for the isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: a review.
TLDR
Molecular tests are being replaced by phenotypic typing methods, which reflect genetic relationships between isolates and are more accurate, and are currently mainly used in research but their considerable potential for routine testing in the future cannot be overlooked.
Immunological decision‐making: how does the immune system decide to mount a helper T‐cell response?
TLDR
This review will focus on the pathways and key factors responsible for the differentiation of the various subsets of effector CD4 T cells, including what is known of the Th1 and Th2 differentiation pathways, while also reviewing the emerging research on Th17 differentiation.
ASC has extracellular and prionoid activities that propagate inflammation
TLDR
It is found that after pyroptosis, ASC specks accumulated in the extracellular space, where they promoted further maturation of IL-1β, and a previously unknown form of cell-to-cell communication is revealed.
Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds
TLDR
To assess C. jejuni population structure more broadly and investigate host adaptation, wild bird isolates from Europe and Australia were genotyped by multilocus sequencing and compared to the genotypes recovered from domestic animal and human isolates, indicating that domesticated animals may represent a novel niche for C.Jejuni and driving the evolution of those bacteria as they exploit this niche.
Surveillance and Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses, Australia
TLDR
A lineage unique to Australia has been identified and it is believed to be related to the common ancestor of the Westphalian and Black-winged Pratincole.
Emerging pathogenic links between microbiota and the gut–lung axis
TLDR
Although the gut–lung axis is only beginning to be understood, emerging evidence indicates that there is potential for manipulation of the gut microbiota in the treatment of lung diseases.
A new short-term mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identifies a role for mast cell tryptase in pathogenesis.
TLDR
A short-term mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD was developed in which the characteristic features of the disease were induced more rapidly than in existing models and a requirement for macrophages and tryptase-expressing MCs was shown.
Cytokine/anti‐cytokine therapy – novel treatments for asthma?
TLDR
Careful interpretation of results from mouse studies will inform the development and application of therapeutic approaches for asthma, and the most effective approaches may be combination therapies that suppress multiple cytokines and a range of redundant and disconnected pathways that separately contribute to asthma pathogenesis.
The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress
TLDR
The different siRNA nanocarrier systems for chronic respiratory diseases, for safe and effective delivery are discussed, and siRNA mediated pro‐inflammatory gene or miRNA targeting approach can be a useful approach in combating chronic respiratory inflammatory conditions.
Isolation of avian influenza viruses from two different transhemispheric migratory shorebird species in Australia
TLDR
Results further demonstrate the potential for migratory shorebirds to carry and potentially spread influenza viruses.
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