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Trypanosomes are monophyletic: evidence from genes for glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and small subunit ribosomal RNA.
The gGAPDH results support the hypothesis that trypanosomes evolved from an ancestral insect parasite, which adapted to a vertebrate/insect transmission cycle, and implies that the switch from terrestrial insect to aquatic leech vectors for fish and some amphibian try panosomes was secondary.
Patterns of co-evolution between trypanosomes and their hosts deduced from ribosomal RNA and protein-coding gene phylogenies.
Relationships between trypanosomes are examined using phylogenies based on the genes for the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) to resolve the deepest split within the genus.
A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae).
It is suggested that haemadipsid leeches may be significant and widespread vectors of trypanosomes in Australia and Asia.
The evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi: the 'bat seeding' hypothesis.
An alternative hypothesis is proposed--the bat seeding hypothesis--whereby lineages of bat trypanosomes have switched into terrestrial mammals, thereby seeding the terrestrial lineages within the clade.
Aflatoxicosis in the broiler chicken.
Aflatoxins are a group of hepatotoxic compounds produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus when growing on feedstuffs that were first discovered in poultry diseases and found to be responsible for tumor formation in mammalians.
An environmental estrogen alters reproductive hierarchies, disrupting sexual selection in group-spawning fish.
There is global concern regarding the potential impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the health of wildlife and humans. Exposure to some estrogens, at concentrations found in the
Dietary exposure of broiler breeders to aflatoxin results in immune dysfunction in progeny chicks.
The findings of this study imply that the progeny chicks from hens consuming a AF-amended diet may be increasingly susceptible to disease owing to suppression of humoral and cellular immunity.
Dominance hierarchies in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their relationship with reproductive success.
Overall, dominance resulted in a greater total reproductive success in males but not in females; however, dominant females sired more offspring with the dominant male, and energy invested in dominance behavior appears beneficial for both sexes in zebrafish.
Mycotoxins - Their Biosynthesis in Fungi: Ochratoxins - Metabolites of Combined Pathways.
The scheme calls for formation of an unbranched pentaketide from acetyl and malonyl CoA, its cyclization and aromatization to an is ocoumarin, methylation and oxidation to the carboxy derivative, ochratoxin A, which is considered the final product of this biosynthetic pathway.