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Extracellular glucose concentrations in the rat hippocampus measured by zero-net-flux: effects of microdialysis flow rate, strain, and age.
The concentration of glucose in the brain's extracellular fluid remains controversial, with recent estimates and measurements ranging from 0.35 to 3.3 mM. In the present experiments, we used theExpand
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Lactate Produced by Glycogenolysis in Astrocytes Regulates Memory Processing
When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory testsExpand
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Acetylcholine modulation of neural systems involved in learning and memory
  • P. Gold
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • 1 November 2003
Extensive evidence supports the view that cholinergic mechanisms modulate learning and memory formation. This paper reviews evidence for cholinergic regulation of multiple memory systems, noting thatExpand
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Decreases in rat extracellular hippocampal glucose concentration associated with cognitive demand during a spatial task.
Using in vivo microdialysis, we measured hippocampal extracellular glucose concentrations in rats while they performed spontaneous alternation tests of spatial working memory in one of two mazes.Expand
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Achieving and maintaining cognitive vitality with aging.
Cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life and survival in old age. With normal aging, cognitive changes such as slowed speed of processing are common, but there is substantialExpand
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Age-related differences in an ecologically based study of route learning.
Spatial learning abilities in younger adults and in healthy elderly adults were examined in 2 tasks. In the first task, participants were tested for their ability to recall relevant route informationExpand
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Switching Memory Systems during Learning: Changes in Patterns of Brain Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum in Rats
This experiment measured acetylcholine (ACh) release simultaneously in the hippocampus and striatum while rats were trained in a cross maze. Consistent with past findings, rats initially showedExpand
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Role of glucose in regulating the brain and cognition.
  • P. Gold
  • Medicine
  • The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1 April 1995
Extensive evidence indicates that relatively modest increases in circulating glucose concentrations enhance learning and memory processes in rodents and humans. In rats, systemic injections ofExpand
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Glucose enhancement of performance of memory tests in young and aged humans
Recent findings indicate that glucose administration enhances memory processes in rodents. This study examined the effects of glucose on memory in humans. After drinking glucose- orExpand
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Glucose Effects on Memory and Other Neuropsychological Tests in Elderly Humans
Recent experiments indicate that peripheral glucose administration enhances memory in rodents and humans. This study examined the effects of glucose on memory and nonmemory measures ofExpand
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