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Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences
Although algal blooms, including those considered toxic or harmful, can be natural phenomena, the nature of the global problem of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has expanded both in extent and its… Expand
Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions
This review provides an integrated synthesis with timelines and evaluations of ecological responses to eutrophi- cation in Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the USA. Analyses of dated sediment… Expand
Eutrophication and Harmful Algal Blooms: A Scientific Consensus.
In January 2003, the US Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a "roundtable discussion" to develop a consensus on the relationship between eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs),… Expand
Mixotrophy, a major mode of nutrition for harmful algal species in eutrophic waters
Historically most harmful algal species (HAS) have been thought to be strictly phototrophic. Mixotrophy, the use of phototrophy and heterotrophy in combination, has been emphasized as operative… Expand
Effect of irradiances up to 2000 μE m−2 s−1 on marine Synechococcus WH7803—I. Growth, pigmentation, and cell composition
Abstract We grew Synechococcus WH7803 at rates exceeding 1.4 d −1 at irradiances from 200 to 2000 μE m −2 s −1 under continuous light in nutrient replete media with no evidence of photoinhibition.… Expand
Escalating Worldwide use of Urea – A Global Change Contributing to Coastal Eutrophication
While the global increase in the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has been well recognized, another change in fertilizer usage has simultaneously occurred: a shift toward urea-based products.… Expand
Release of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen by Marine Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria, Trichodesmium spp.
Trichodesmium sp. is a filamentous, colonial cyanobacterium which contributes substantially to the input of nitrogen in tropical and subtropical oceanic waters through nitrogen fixation (N(2)… Expand
Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller A review of a harmful algal bloom species of growing worldwide importance
Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller, a common, neritic, bloom-forming dinoflagellate, is the cause of harmful blooms in many estuarine and coastal environments. Among harmful algal bloom… Expand
Nitrogen Uptake, Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Release, and New Production
In oceanic, coastal, and estuarine environments, an average of 25 to 41 percent of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + and NO3 –) taken up by phytoplankton is released as dissolved organic… Expand
Role of urea in microbial metabolism in aquatic systems: a biochemical and molecular review
Urea synthesized commercially and formed naturally as a by-product of cellular metab- olism is an important source of nitrogen (N) for primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Although urea is… Expand