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Nature’s hierarchical materials
Abstract Many biological tissues, such as wood and bone, are fiber composites with a hierarchical structure. Their exceptional mechanical properties are believed to be due to a functional adaptation… Expand
Bone mineralization density distribution in health and disease.
BMDD measurements combined with other scanning techniques like nanoindentation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering can provide important insights into the structure-function relation of the bone matrix, and ultimately a better prediction of fracture risk in diseases, and after treatment. Expand
Structure and mechanical quality of the collagen–mineral nano-composite in bone
Bone is a hierarchically structured material with remarkable mechanical performance which may serve as a model for the development of biomimetic materials. Understanding its properties is essential… Expand
Collagen : structure and mechanics
- P. Fratzl
- Materials Science
Collagen: Structure and Mechanics, an Introduction.- Collagen Diversity, Synthesis and Assembly.- Collagen Fibrillar Structure and Hierarchies.- Restraining Cross-Links Responsible for the Mechanical… Expand
Materials become insensitive to flaws at nanoscale: Lessons from nature
- Huajian Gao, B. Ji, I. Jäger, E. Arzt, P. Fratzl
- Materials Science, Medicine
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 5 May 2003
It is shown that the nanocomposites in nature exhibit a generic mechanical structure in which the nanometer size of mineral particles is selected to ensure optimum strength and maximum tolerance of flaws (robustness) and the widely used engineering concept of stress concentration at flaws is no longer valid for nanomaterial design. Expand
Mineralized collagen fibrils: a mechanical model with a staggered arrangement of mineral particles.
A model with a staggered array of platelets that is in better agreement with results on molecular packing in collagen fibrils and that accounts for an increase of both elastic modulus and fracture stress with the amount of mineral in the fibril is proposed. Expand
Viscoelastic properties of collagen: synchrotron radiation investigations and structural model.
- R. Puxkandl, I. Žižak, +5 authors P. Fratzl
- Materials Science, Medicine
- Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
- 28 February 2002
A simple structural model is proposed, which describes the tendon at a hierarchical level, where fibrils and interfibrillar matrix act as coupled viscoelastic systems, and all qualitative features of the strain-rate dependence of both normal and cross-link-deficient collagen can be reproduced within this model. Expand
Validation of quantitative backscattered electron imaging for the measurement of mineral density distribution in human bone biopsies.
For routine clinical research, the method of calibration and standardization of the backscattered electron (BE) signal is validated and detection of the degree of mineralization independently from the actual bone volume seems to be of special interest in the assessment of the effect of treatments for osteoporosis. Expand
Mechanical properties of spruce wood cell walls by nanoindentation
In order to study the effects of structural variability, nanoindentation experiments were performed in Norway spruce cell walls with highly variable cellulose microfibril angle and lignin content.… Expand
The elementary cellulose fibril in Picea abies : comparison of transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and wide-angle X-ray scattering results
The wood cell wall is built with elementary cellulose fibrils (ECF) having a uniform thickness of 25 ± 2 A. This was shown by investigating the same samples independently with three different… Expand