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The gut microbiota of insects - diversity in structure and function.
TLDR
Gut bacteria of other insects have also been shown to contribute to nutrition, protection from parasites and pathogens, modulation of immune responses, and communication, and the extent of these roles is still unclear and awaits further studies.
Functional diversity within the simple gut microbiota of the honey bee
TLDR
The sequenced metagenome of the gut microbiota of honey bees reveals insights into mutualistic functions governed by the microbiota of this important pollinator and indicates that the honey bee can serve as a model for understanding more complex gut-associated microbial communities.
Adenylylation control by intra- or intermolecular active-site obstruction in Fic proteins
TLDR
Structural homology modelling of all annotated Fic proteins indicates that inhibition by αinh is universal and conserved through evolution, as the inhibitory motif is present in ∼90% of all putatively adenylylation-active FIC domains, including examples from all domains of life and from viruses.
Genomic analysis of Bartonella identifies type IV secretion systems as host adaptability factors
TLDR
Comparison and functional genomics are used to infer pathogenicity genes specific to the radiating lineage of Bartonella tribocorum, and it is suggested that these genes may have facilitated adaptation to the host environment.
Genomics and host specialization of honey bee and bumble bee gut symbionts
TLDR
It is shown that the simple microbiota of eusocial bees exhibits host specificity and that coresident species in the bee gut possess complementary capabilities for energy metabolism, implying their occupancy in distinct ecological niches, and that host specificity is likely driven by multiple factors, including direct host–microbe interactions, microbe–micro be interactions, and social transmission.
The Trw Type IV Secretion System of Bartonella Mediates Host-Specific Adhesion to Erythrocytes
TLDR
It is shown that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals.
The BatR/BatS Two-Component Regulatory System Controls the Adaptive Response of Bartonella henselae during Human Endothelial Cell Infection
TLDR
It is proposed that BatR/BatS two-component system homologs represent vertically inherited pH sensors that control the expression of horizontally transmitted gene sets critical for the diverse host-associated life styles of the alphaproteobacteria.
Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathoadaptation Revealed by Three Independent Acquisitions of the VirB/D4 Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella
TLDR
The authors' analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set, and suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector.
Hidden Diversity in Honey Bee Gut Symbionts Detected by Single-Cell Genomics
TLDR
It is shown that, despite minimal divergence at 16S rRNA genes, in situ diversification occurs within gut communities and generates bacterial lineages with distinct ecological niches and single cell genomics has potential to elucidate processes of bacterial diversification.
Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella
TLDR
The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens, highlighting the remarkable evolvability of T4SSs and their effector proteins, explaining their broad application in bacterial interactions with the environment.
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