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Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life.
This work provides "hard" minimum and "soft" maximum age constraints for 30 divergences among key genome model organisms; these should contribute to better understanding of the dating of the animal tree of life. Expand
Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny
A powerful Bayesian method is used to analyse 36 nuclear genomes and 274 mitochondrial genomes to reject a pre K–Pg model of placental ordinal diversification, and it is suggested other infamous instances of mismatch between molecular and palaeontological divergence time estimates will be resolved with this same approach. Expand
Calibrating and constraining molecular clocks
In explaining the role of fossils in establishing timescales, the historical sequ ence in which key observations were made is reviewed, and a list of 63 key dates is presented, with thorough evidence and error expressions, for a wide range of organisms. Expand
Establishing a time-scale for plant evolution.
A post-Jurassic origin of angiosperms and a post-Cambrian origin of land plants are rejected, and it is suggested that the establishment of the major embryophyte lineages occurred at a much slower tempo than suggested in most previous studies. Expand
Rocks and clocks: calibrating the Tree of Life using fossils and molecules.
Work should now focus on establishing reasonable, dated trees that satisfy rigorous assessment of the available fossils and careful consideration of molecular tree methods, to explore wider questions in macroevolution. Expand
Origins of multicellularity
tained under conditions that support stem cells. This highlights the fact that stochastic influences may be at work within stem-cell populations. Roesch and colleagues’ results will be crucial if theExpand
Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations
A specimen-based protocol for selecting and documenting relevant fossils is presented and future directions for evaluating and utilizing phylogenetic and temporal data from the fossil record are discussed, to establish the best practices for justifying fossils used for the temporal calibration of molecular phylogenies. Expand
Origin and evolution of the integumentary skeleton in non‐tetrapod vertebrates
The novelty of the new scenario of integumentary skeletal evolution resides in the demonstration that elasmodine, the main component of elasmoid scales, is odontogenic in origin, and it is proposed that el asmodine is a form of lamellar dentine. Expand
Integrated genomic and fossil evidence illuminates life’s early evolution and eukaryote origins
The last universal common ancestor of cellular life is found to have predated the end of late heavy bombardment, and a timescale of life is derived, combining a reappraisal of the fossil material with new molecular clock analyses. Expand
Early evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues and cellular interactions, and the canalization of skeletal development.
A synthesis of leading hypotheses for the emergence of the four skeletal tissue types that define the present state of skeletal tissue diversity in vertebrates finds that bone, dentine, enamel and cartilage do appear to be fundamentally distinct from their first inceptions, although why a higher diversity of tissue structural grades exists within these types early in vertebrate phylogeny is a question that remains to be addressed. Expand