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Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for early mouse post-implantation development
TLDR
It is established that RA synthesized by the post-implantation mammalian embryo is an essential developmental hormone whose lack leads to early embryo death.
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-2 (PARP-2) Is Required for Efficient Base Excision DNA Repair in Association with PARP-1 and XRCC1*
TLDR
Following treatment by the alkylating agentN-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU),PARP-2-deficient cells displayed an important delay in DNA strand breaks resealing, similar to that observed in PARP-1 deficient cells, thus confirming that PARp-2 is also an active player in base excision repair despite its low capacity to synthesize ADP-ribose polymers.
Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the µ-opioid-receptor gene
TLDR
Investigation of the behavioural effects of morphine reveals that a lack of μ receptors abolishes the analgesic effect of morphine, as well as place-preference activity and physical dependence, and concludes that the µ-opioid-receptor gene product is a mandatory component of the opioid system for morphine action.
Retinoic acid in development: towards an integrated view
TLDR
Retinoic acid has complex and pleiotropic functions during vertebrate development and some of these functions could be maintained throughout the life of an organism to regulate cell-lineage decisions and/or the differentiation of stem cell populations, highlighting possibilities for regenerative medicine.
Retinoic acid signalling during development
TLDR
An overview of the RA biosynthesis, degradation and signalling pathways is provided and the main functions of this molecule during embryogenesis are reviewed.
The retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme, CYP26A1, is essential for normal hindbrain patterning, vertebral identity, and development of posterior structures.
TLDR
It is postulate that the key function of CYP26A1 is to maintain specific embryonic areas in a RA-depleted state, to protect them against the deleterious effect of ectopic RA signaling.
Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (I). Craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in RAR double mutants.
TLDR
Multiple eye abnormalities are described which are found in various RAR double mutant fetuses and are similar to those previously seen in VAD fetuses, and further abnormalities not previously reported in Vad fetuses are found.
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