The steady progress of physics requires for its theoretical formulation a mathematics that gets continually more advanced. This is only natural and to be expected. What, however, was not expected by… Expand

The new quantum mechanics, when applied to the problem of the structure of the atom with point-charge electrons, does not give results in agreement with experiment. The discrepancies consist of… Expand

For dealing with atoms involving many electrons the accurate quantum theory, involving a solution of the wave equation in many-dimensional space, is far too complicated to be practicable. One must… Expand

It is well known that the experimental facts of atomic physics necessitate a departure from the classical theory of electrodynamics in the description of atomic phenomena. This departure takes the… Expand

The new mechanics of the atom introduced by Heisenberg may be based on the assumption that the variables that describe a dynamical system do not obey the commutative law of multiplication, but… Expand

The general theory of quantum mechanics is now almost complete, the imperfections that still remain being in connection with the exact fitting in of the theory with relativity ideas. These give rise… Expand

Electrodynamics is formulated so as to be manifestly invariant under general gauge transformations, through being built up entirely in terms of gauge-invariant dynamical variables. The quantization… Expand