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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
TLDR
These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Inhibition of the EGF-activated MAP kinase signaling pathway by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate.
TLDR
Increased concentrations of cAMP blocked activation of Raf-1, MKK, and MAPK in Rat1hER fibroblasts, accompanied by a threefold increase in Raf- 1 phosphorylation on serine 43 in the regulatory domain.
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Mcl-1 down-regulation potentiates ABT-737 lethality by cooperatively inducing Bak activation and Bax translocation.
TLDR
These findings suggest down-regulation of Mcl-1 by either CDK inhibitors or genetic approaches dramatically potentiate ABT-737 lethality through cooperative interactions at two distinct levels: unleashing of Bak from both Bcl-xL and M cl-1 and simultaneous induction of Bak activation and Bax translocation.
Bile acids as regulatory molecules
TLDR
Current knowledge of how bile acids regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism through the activation of specific nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways is summarized.
MAPK pathways in radiation responses
TLDR
The ability of radiation to activate MAPK signaling pathways may depend on the expression of multiple growth factor receptors, autocrine factors and Ras mutation, and enhanced basal signaling by proto-oncogenes such as K-/H-/N-RAS may provide a radioprotective and growth-promoting signal.
Stress and Radiation-Induced Activation of Multiple Intracellular Signaling Pathways1
TLDR
This review will attempt to describe some of the complex network of signals induced by ionizing radiation and other cellular stresses in animal cells, with particular attention to signaling by growth factor and death receptors.
The molecular mechanism by which insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis in mammalian skeletal muscle
TLDR
An insulin-stimulated protein kinase is shown to activate the type-1 protein phosphatase that controls glycogen metabolism, by phosphorylating its regulatory subunit at a specific serine.
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase by v-Raf in NIH 3T3 cells and in vitro.
TLDR
Findings suggest that one function of c-Raf-1 in mitogenic signaling is to phosphorylate and activate MAP kinase kinase, which is activated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation in cells stimulated with mitogens and growth factors.
Deoxycholic acid (DCA) causes ligand-independent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FAS receptor in primary hepatocytes: inhibition of EGFR/mitogen-activated protein
TLDR
The data argues that DCA is causing ligand independent activation of the FAS receptor to stimulate an apoptotic response, which is counteracted by enhanced ligand-independent EGFR/MAPK signaling, which potentiates DCA-stimulated FAS-induced hepatocyte cell death via a reduction in the expression of c-FLIP isoforms.
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