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Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns
Species comparisons and selection experiments suggest that the evolution of eyespot patterns can occur rapidly through modulation of different stages of this pathway, and requires only single, or very few, changes in regulatory genes.
The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot color patterns
Evo-devo and constraints on selection.
- P. Brakefield
- BiologyTrends in ecology & evolution
- 1 July 2006
Phenotypic plasticity, seasonal climate and the population biology of Bicyclus butterflies (Satyridae) in Malawi
It is shown that the adult butterflies have a comparatively long life expectancy and are quite sedentary, and a hypothesis linking the polyphenism to seasonal changes in resting background and selection for crypsis is discussed.
The dynamics of evolutionary stasis
Understanding of the fossil record and in population genetics and evolutionary ecology point to the complex geographic structure of species being fundamental to resolution of how taxa can commonly exhibit both short-term evolutionary dynamics and long-term stasis.
Developmental constraints versus flexibility in morphological evolution
It is shown that despite the developmental coupling between different eyespots in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, there is great potential for independent changes, which is consistent with the diversity of wing patterns across species and argues for a dominant role of natural selection, rather than internal constraints, in shaping existing variation.
Natural Selection and Developmental Constraints in the Evolution of Allometries
This work performed artificial selection on the allometry between forewing area and body size in a butterfly to test for developmental constraints, and then used the resultant increased range of phenotypic variation to quantify natural selection onThe scaling relationship.
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera.
The primary goal is to identify mechanisms that either facilitate or constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism, rather than to resolve any perceived controversy between hypotheses that may not be mutually exclusive.
The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis
This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies, and Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of phersomone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moth relevant to future research.
Captivity masks inbreeding effects on male mating success in butterflies
It is shown that a small decrease in mating success of captive inbred male butterflies in cages is greatly accentuated in conditions with unconstrained flight, showing that the behaviours underlying patterns of mating can be profoundly influenced by a history of inbreeding or by any restraining experimental conditions.