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First stars V - Abundance patterns from C to Zn and supernova yields in the early Galaxy
In the framework of the ESO Large Programme "First Stars", very high-quality spectra of some 70 very metal-poor dwarfs and giants were obtained with the ESO VLT and UVES spectrograph. These stars areExpand
Solar Chemical Abundances Determined with a CO5BOLD 3D Model Atmosphere
In the last decade, the photospheric solar metallicity as determined from spectroscopy experienced a remarkable downward revision. Part of this effect can be attributed to an improvement of atomicExpand
An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo
It is shown that low-mass stars can be formed at very low metallicity, that is, below the critical value of Z, which implies that the stellar material must have experienced temperatures above two million kelvin in its history, given that this is necessary to destroy lithium. Expand
A new implementation of the infrared flux method using the 2MASS catalogue
Context. The effective temperature scale of FGK stars, especially at the lowest metallicities remains a major problem in the chemical abundance analysis of metal-poor stars. Aims. We present a newExpand
The photospheric solar oxygen project. I. Abundance analysis of atomic lines and influence of atmosp
Context: The solar oxygen abundance has undergone a major downward revision in the past decade, the most noticeable one being the update including 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the solarExpand
First stars. I. The extreme r-element rich, iron-poor halo giant CS 31082-001 - Implications for the r-process site(s) and radioactive cosmochronology
We present a high-resolution (R = 75 000, S/N 500) spectroscopic analysis of the bright (V = 11.7), extreme halo giant CS 31082-001 ((Fe/H) = 2.9), obtained in an ESO-VLT Large Programme dedicated toExpand
First stars VI - Abundances of C, N, O, Li, and mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Galactic evolution of the light elements
We have investigated the poorly-understood origin of nitrogen in the early Galaxy by determining N abundances from the NH band at 336 nm in 35 extremely metal-poor halo giants, with carbon and oxygenExpand
Measurement of stellar age from uranium decay
The observation of this cosmochronometer gives the most direct age determination of the Galaxy, and with improved theoretical and laboratory data, it will provide a highly precise lower limit to the age of the Universe. Expand
The metal-poor end of the Spite plateau - I. Stellar parameters, metallicities, and lithium abundances
Context. The primordial nature of the Spite plateau is at odds with the WMAP satellite measurements, implying a primordial Li production at least three times higher than observed. It has also beenExpand
The primordial lithium abundance
Lithium abundances in a selected sample of halo stars have been revised by using the new accurate IRFM effective temperatures by Alonso, Arribas & Mart´onez-Roger (1996a). From 41 plateau stars (TeffExpand