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Elevated plasma cytokines in autism spectrum disorders provide evidence of immune dysfunction and are associated with impaired behavioral outcome
TLDR
Evidence of differential cytokine release in plasma samples obtained from 2 to 5 year-old children with ASD compared with age-matched typically developing children and children with developmental disabilities other than autism (DD) is investigated and significantly shifted cytokine profiles are reported. Expand
The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism
TLDR
The current state of knowledge of immune dysfunction in ASD is discussed, how these findings may impact on underlying neuro-immune mechanisms and implicate potential areas where the manipulation of the immune response could have an impact on behavior and immunity in ASD. Expand
Consensus Paper: Pathological Role of the Cerebellum in Autism
TLDR
The diversity of opinions regarding the involvement of this important site in the pathology of autism will be observed, and points of consensus include presence of abnormal cerebellar anatomy, abnormal neurotransmitter systems, oxidative stress, Cerebellar motor and cognitive deficits, and neuroinflammation in subjects with autism. Expand
The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research
TLDR
This review will examine the status of the research linking the immune response with ASD and the potential that aberrant immune activity during vulnerable and critical periods of neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of neurological dysfunction characteristic of ASD. Expand
Cytokine dysregulation in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): possible role of the environment.
TLDR
This review represents an emerging model that recognizes the importance of both genetic and environmental factors in ASD etiology and proposes that the immune system provides critical clues regarding the nature of the gene by environment interactions that underlie ASD pathophysiology. Expand
The human placenta methylome
TLDR
It is found that PMDs cover 37% of the placental genome, are stable throughout gestation and between individuals, and can be observed with lower sensitivity in Illumina 450K Infinium data, and RNA-seq analysis confirmed that genes in PMDs are repressed in placenta. Expand
Increased midgestational IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in women bearing a child with autism: A case-control study
TLDR
Elevated concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in midgestation maternal serum were significantly associated with a 50% increased risk of ASD, regardless of ASD onset type and the presence of intellectual disability. Expand
Maternal immune activation and strain specific interactions in the development of autism-like behaviors in mice
TLDR
Data suggest that behavioral and immunological effects of maternal immune activation are strain-dependent in mice, and persistent dysregulation of adaptive immune system function was only observed in BTBR mice. Expand
Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders
TLDR
Data indicate that, monocyte cultures from children with ASD are more responsive to signaling via select TLRs, which could lead to the development of adverse neuroimmune interactions and could play a role in the pathophysiology observed in ASD. Expand
Associations of impaired behaviors with elevated plasma chemokines in autism spectrum disorders
TLDR
Elevated MCP-1, RANTES and eotaxin levels in some ASD children and their association with more impaired behaviors may have etiological significance and Chemokines and their receptors might provide unique targets for future therapies in ASD. Expand
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