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Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with(More)
The pathogenesis of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is characterized by CD4(+) T cell depletion and chronic T cell activation, leading ultimately to AIDS. CD4(+) T helper (T(H)) cells provide protective immunity and immune regulation through different immune cell functional subsets, including T(H)1, T(H)2, T regulatory (T(reg)), and interleukin-17(More)
"Alternatively-activated" macrophages are found in Th2-mediated inflammatory settings such as nematode infection and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Due in part to a lack of markers, these cells have not been well characterized in vivo and their function remains unknown. We have used murine macrophages elicited by nematode infection (NeMφ) as a source of(More)
B7 family proteins provide costimulatory signals that regulate T cell responses. Here we report the third set of B7 family-related T cell inhibitory molecules with the identification of a homolog of the B7 family, B7x. It is expressed in immune cells, nonlymphoid tissues, and some tumor cell lines. B7x inhibits cell-cycle progression, proliferation, and(More)
PD-L1 and PD-L2 are ligands for PD-1, a costimulatory molecule that plays an inhibitory role in regulating T cell activation in the periphery. We find that PD-L1 is highly expressed on inflammatory macrophages as compared with resident peritoneal macrophages but can be induced on resident macrophages by classical activation stimuli such as(More)
Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMPhi) are found in abundance during chronic Th2 inflammatory responses to metazoan parasites. Important roles for these macrophages are being defined, particularly in the context of Th2-mediated pathology and fibrosis. However, a full understanding of the requirements for alternative activation, particularly at the(More)
The study of protective immune mechanisms effective against filarial nematodes has been hampered by the inability of these important human pathogens to infect laboratory mice. Recently, Litomosoides sigmodontis, a natural parasite of rats, has been developed as a valuable model for the study of filarial infection. BALB/c mice are fully susceptible to(More)
Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity. Here, we show that exposure of affected animals to the whipworm Trichuris trichiura led to clinical improvement in fecal consistency, accompanied by weight gain, in four out of the five treated monkeys. By flow cytometry analysis of pinch biopsies(More)
The cytokine microenvironment is thought to play an important role in the generation of immunoregulatory cells. Nematode infections are commonly associated with Th2 cytokines and hyporesponsive T cells. Here we show that IL-4-dependent macrophages recruited in vivo by the nematode parasite Brugia malayi actively suppress the proliferation of lymphocytes on(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with dengue viruses (DENV) leads to a spectrum of disease outcomes. The pathophysiology of severe versus non-severe manifestations of DENV infection may be driven by host responses, which could be reflected in the transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood immune cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted genome-wide(More)