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Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with(More)
The cytokine microenvironment is thought to play an important role in the generation of immunoregulatory cells. Nematode infections are commonly associated with Th2 cytokines and hyporesponsive T cells. Here we show that IL-4-dependent macrophages recruited in vivo by the nematode parasite Brugia malayi actively suppress the proliferation of lymphocytes on(More)
Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMPhi) are found in abundance during chronic Th2 inflammatory responses to metazoan parasites. Important roles for these macrophages are being defined, particularly in the context of Th2-mediated pathology and fibrosis. However, a full understanding of the requirements for alternative activation, particularly at the(More)
Infections with the helminth parasite Brugia malayi share many key features with Th2-mediated allergic diseases, including recruitment of eosinophils. We have investigated the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment under type 2 cytokine conditions in mice infected with B. malayi. Among the cells recruited to the site of infection is a novel population of(More)
A key feature of nematode infection is a bias towards a type 2 immune response. To investigate the role that antigen-presenting cells (APC) may play in promoting this bias, we used adherent peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) recruited in response to the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, to stimulate naïve T cells from pigeon cytochrome c (PCC)-specific TCR(More)
BACKGROUND "Alternatively-activated" macrophages are found in Th2-mediated inflammatory settings such as nematode infection and allergic pulmonary inflammation. Due in part to a lack of markers, these cells have not been well characterized in vivo and their function remains unknown. RESULTS We have used murine macrophages elicited by nematode infection(More)
Macrophages adopt an alternatively activated phenotype (AAMs) when activated by the interleukin-4receptor(R)α. AAMs can be derived either from proliferation of tissue resident macrophages or recruited inflammatory monocytes, but it is not known whether these different sources generate AAMs that are phenotypically and functionally distinct. By(More)
With the rapid generation of genetic information from the Streptomyces coelicolor genome project, deciphering the relevant gene products is critical for understanding the genetics of this model streptomycete. A putative malate synthase gene (aceB) from S. coelicolor A3(2) was identified by homology-based analysis, cloned by polymerase chain reaction, and(More)
Circulating blood monocytes are a heterogeneous leukocyte population that contributes critical antimicrobial and regulatory functions during systemic and tissue-specific infections. These include patrolling vascular tissue for evidence of microbial invasion, infiltrating peripheral tissues and directly killing microbial invaders, conditioning the(More)
Cerebral malaria claims the lives of over 600,000 African children every year. To better understand the pathogenesis of this devastating disease, we compared the cellular dynamics in the cortical microvasculature between two infection models, Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infected CBA/CaJ mice, which develop experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), and P.(More)