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The equivalent absorption path length in an integrating cavity is examined. In an otherwise excellent paper, Tranchart et al. [Appl. Opt. 35, 7070 (1996)] made an important error in obtaining the expressions for the equivalent path length in an integrating cavity. This error has been propagated through several other publications in the literature. Since the(More)
A hybrid method is developed to solve the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in a three-dimensional atmosphere-ocean system (AOS). The system is divided into three parts: the atmosphere, the dielectric interface, and the ocean. The Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the impulse response functions (Green functions) for the atmosphere and(More)
We have developed a powerful 3D Monte Carlo code, as part of the Radiance in a Dynamic Ocean (RaDyO) project, which can compute the complete effective Mueller matrix at any detector position in a completely inhomogeneous turbid medium, in particular, a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The light source can be either passive or active. If the light source is(More)
A three-dimensional fourth-order finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) program with a symplectic integrator scheme has been developed to solve the problem of light scattering by small particles. The symplectic scheme is nondissipative and requires no more storage than the conventional second-order FDTD scheme. The total-field and scattered-field technique is(More)
We have studied the distribution of the electric and magnetic energy densities within and in the vicinity outside a dielectric particle illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave. Numerical simulations were performed by using the Lorenz-Mie theory and the finite-difference time-domain method for spheres and spheroids, respectively. We found that the(More)
When the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is applied to light-scattering computations, the far fields can be obtained by means of integrating the near fields either over the volume bounded by the particle's surface or on a regular surface encompassing the scatterer. For light scattering by a sphere, the accurate near-field components on the(More)
The temporal response of an integrating cavity is examined and compared with the results of a Monte Carlo analysis. An important parameter in the temporal response is the average distance d between successive reflections at the cavity wall; d was calculated for several specific cavity designs--spherical shell, cube, right circular cylinder, irregular(More)
The Mueller matrix imaging method is a powerful tool for target detection. In this study, the effect of the air-sea interface on the detection of underwater objects is studied. A backward Monte Carlo code has been developed to study this effect. The main result is that the reflection of the diffuse sky light by the interface reduces the Mueller image(More)
Invisibility cloaks for ellipsoids, rounded cuboids and rounded cylinders have been studied on the basis of the coordinate transformation approach. The resultant material property tensors for irregular cloaks are more complicated in comparison with those for the spherical invisibility cloak. A generalized Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) formalism has(More)