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The intracellular mechanism(s) by which a cell determines the duration of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) activation is not well understood. We have investigated the role of STEP, a striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase, in the regulation of ERK activity in rat neurons. Glutamate-mediated activation of NMDA receptors leads to the rapid but(More)
Blood–brain barrier (BBB) leakage plays a key role in cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury. It is quite necessary to further explore the characteristic and mechanism of BBB leakage during stroke. We induced a focal cerebral ischemia model by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats for defining the time course of BBB permeability within 120 h(More)
Human spermatozoa are characterized by poor functionality and abundant DNA damage that collude to generate the high incidences of male infertility and miscarriage seen in our species. Although apoptosis has been suggested as a possible cause of poor sperm quality, the ability of these cells to enter an apoptotic state and the factors that might trigger such(More)
AIMS To investigate whether Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, three core regulatory factors maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), are coexpressed in human gliomas, and whether their expression might be linked to carcinogenesis and the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). METHODS AND RESULTS Forty cases of human glioma were(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy kills tumor-cells by inducing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the efficient repair of tumors frequently prevents successful treatment. Therefore, identifying new practical sensitizers is an essential step towards successful radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the new hypothesis: identifying the miRNAs to target DNA DSB(More)
Sox2 is a key factor for maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESS) pluripotency, but little is known about its posttranslational regulation. Here we present evidence that the precise level of Sox2 proteins in ESCs is regulated by a balanced methylation and phosphorylation switch. Set7 monomethylates Sox2 at K119, which inhibits Sox2 transcriptional activity and(More)
PML/RARalpha is of crucial importance in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) both pathologically and therapeutically. Using a genome-wide approach, we identified in vivo PML/RARalpha binding sites in a PML/RARalpha-inducible cell model. Of the 2979 targeted regions, >62% contained canonical PU.1 motifs and >84% of these PU.1 motifs coexisted with one or more(More)
The fabrication and initial applications of nanobubbles (NBs) have shown promising results in recent years. A small particle size is a basic requirement for ultrasound contrast-enhanced agents that penetrate tumor blood vessel pores to allow for targeted imaging and therapy. However, the nanoscale size of the particles used has the disadvantage of weakening(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of diabetes with increasing severity of obesity and the distribution of HbA1c levels in diabetics participating in the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS(More)