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Opioid peptides, Met5- and Leu5-enkephalin, are known endogenous ligands for the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) associated with opioid analgesia at the spinal level. To determine the cellular sites for DOR-mediated actions, we examined the ultrastructural localization of DOR and Met5-enkephalin (ME) in the spinal cord by combining immunoperoxidase and(More)
The delta opioid receptor (DOR) and mu opioid receptor (MOR) are abundantly distributed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Simultaneous activation of each receptor by selective opiate agonists has been shown to result in synergistic analgesic effects. To determine the cellular basis for these functional associations, we examined the electron microscopic(More)
Physiological studies have indicated that agonists at the mu-opioid receptor (mu OR), such as morphine or the endogenous peptide methionine5-enkephalin, can markedly decrease the spontaneous activity of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC). Messenger RNA and protein for mu OR are also densely expressed by LC neurons. During opiate withdrawal,(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is thought to mediate the postsynaptic effects of excitatory amino acids released from primary afferent terminals in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where synergistic associations with substance P (SP) have been implicated in the production of hyperalgesia. We examined the electron(More)
Activation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) by morphine within the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is known to mediate both cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal responses. Leu5-enkephalin (LE), a potential endogenous ligand for MOR, is also present within neurons in this region. To determine the cellular sites for the visceral effects of MOR(More)
The dynamic pattern of fetal breathing was studied in 17 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. The instantaneous breathing rate time series appeared similar on different time scales, with clusters of faster breathing rates interspersed with periods of relative quiescience, suggesting self-similarity.(More)
Immunoreactivity corresponding to the C-terminus of the rat mu opiate receptor can be detected by light microscopy in fiber- and terminal-like patterns in a number of rat brain and spinal cord regions, and in immunoreactive perikarya in several of these regions. Especially abundant fiber- and terminal-like patterns were localized to superficial layers of(More)
The insular cortex has been implicated in the reinforcing properties of opiates as well as in the integration of responses to sensory-motor stimulation. Moreover, the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and the endogenous opioid ligand, Met5-enkephalin (ENK) are known to be prominently distributed in insular limbic cortex. To examine the anatomical sites for opioid(More)
Recent evidence suggests that administration of low doses of morphine causes respiratory stimulation, along with a more active electroencephalogram (EEG) in the fetal lamb. The present study used selective opioid agonists and antagonists to determine the role mu 1- and delta-opioid receptor subtypes play in the response as well as determine if endogenous(More)