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In the exocytosis of neurotransmitter, fusion pore opening represents the first instant of fluid contact between the vesicle lumen and extracellular space. The existence of the fusion pore has been established by electrical measurements, but its molecular composition is unknown. The possibility that synaptotagmin regulates fusion pores was investigated with(More)
Exocytosis-the release of the contents of a vesicle--proceeds by two mechanisms. Full fusion occurs when the vesicle and plasma membranes merge. Alternatively, in what is termed kiss-and-run, vesicles can release transmitter during transient contacts with the plasma membrane. Little is known at the molecular level about how the choice between these two(More)
Synaptotagmin-IV (syt-IV) is a membrane trafficking protein that influences learning and memory, but its localization and role in synaptic function remain unclear. We found that syt-IV localized to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-containing vesicles in hippocampal neurons. Syt-IV/BDNF-harboring vesicles underwent exocytosis in both axons and(More)
Synaptotagmin I (Syt I), the putative Ca(2+) sensor in regulated exocytosis, has two Ca(2+)-binding modules, the C2A and C2B domains, and a number of putative effectors to which Syt I binds in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion. The role of Ca(2+) binding to these domains remains unclear, as efforts to address questions about Ca(2+)-triggered effector interactions(More)
Synaptotagmin-IV (syt-IV) is a membrane trafficking protein that influences learning and memory, but its localization and role in synaptic function remain unclear. Here we discovered that syt-IV localizes to BDNF-containing vesicles in hippocampal neurons. Syt-IV/BDNF-harboring vesicles undergo exocytosis in both axons and dendrites, and syt-IV inhibits(More)
The hippocampus is an integral brain region for affective disorders. TRIP8b knockout mice lacking functional HCN channels as well as both HCN1 and HCN2 knockout mice have been shown to display antidepressant-like behaviors. The mechanisms or brain regions involved in these alterations in behavior, however, are not clear. We developed a lentiviral shRNA(More)
Voltage-sensitive-dye imaging was used to study the initiation and propagation of epileptiform activity in transverse hippocampal slices. A portion of the slices tested generated epileptiform discharges in response to electrical shocks under normal physiological conditions. The fraction of slices showing epileptiform responses increased from 44 to 86% when(More)
BACKGROUND In neonatal binocular animals, the developing retina displays patterned spontaneous activity termed retinal waves, which are initiated by a single class of interneurons (starburst amacrine cells, SACs) that release neurotransmitters. Although SACs are shown to regulate wave dynamics, little is known regarding how altering the proteins involved in(More)
Although LTP (long-term potentiation) of synaptic transmission has received much attention as a model for learning and memory, its function within a neural circuit context remains poorly understood. To monitor LTP over an extensive circuit, we imaged responses in hippocampal slices using a voltage-sensitive dye. Following theta-burst stimulation, evoked(More)
In distributed computing environments, executing a program often requires the access of remote data ®les. An ecient data routing scheme is thus important for time-critical applications. To ensure a prior desired communication quality, we present a connection-oriented routing scheme, the multipath routing, which allows multiple routes to be established(More)