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Herniation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) from lumbar intervertebral discs commonly results in radiculopathic pain and paresthesia (sciatica). While traditionally considered the result of mechanical compression of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and/or spinal nerve root, recent studies implicate pro-inflammatory mediators released from or evoked by NP, a(More)
Recent advances in the area of cervical spine internal fixation have resulted in important additions to the armamentarium of the spine surgery. However, a sophisticated knowledge of the biomechanics of these devices is important. This article discusses the biomechanics of odontoid screws, anterior cervical plates, posterior cervical plates, and posterior(More)
Herniation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) from lumbar intervertebral discs commonly results in radiculopathic pain possibly through a neuroinflammatory response. NP sensitizes dorsal horn neuronal responses, but it is unknown whether this reflects a central or peripheral sensitization. To study central sensitization, we tested if NP enhances windup--the(More)
The optimal surgical approach for spinal canal reconstruction of thoracolumbar fractures is controversial, and the relationship between spinal canal reconstruction and neurological recovery remains unclear. To address these issues, 22 consecutive cases of thoracolumbar fracture with accompanying neurological deficit were reviewed. Neurological status was(More)
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